Category Archives: energy

Kevlar-wrapped batteries on an airplane

Researchers at the University of Michigan are not trying to bulletproof lithium-ion batteries with kevlar. Rather, they’re trying prevent fires. From a Jan. 27, 2015 University of Michigan news release (also on EurekAlert),

New battery technology from the University of Michigan should be able to prevent the kind of fires that grounded Boeing 787 Dreamliners in 2013.

The innovation is an advanced barrier between the electrodes in a lithium-ion battery.

Made with nanofibers extracted from Kevlar, the tough material in bulletproof vests, the barrier stifles the growth of metal tendrils that can become unwanted pathways for electrical current.

A U-M team of researchers also founded Ann Arbor-based Elegus Technologies to bring this research from the lab to market. Mass production is expected to begin in the fourth quarter 2016.

“Unlike other ultra strong materials such as carbon nanotubes, Kevlar is an insulator,” said Nicholas Kotov, the Joseph B. and Florence V. Cejka Professor of Engineering. “This property is perfect for separators that need to prevent shorting between two electrodes.”

Lithium-ion batteries work by shuttling lithium ions from one electrode to the other. This creates a charge imbalance, and since electrons can’t go through the membrane between the electrodes, they go through a circuit instead and do something useful on the way.

But if the holes in the membrane are too big, the lithium atoms can build themselves into fern-like structures, called dendrites, which eventually poke through the membrane. If they reach the other electrode, the electrons have a path within the battery, shorting out the circuit. This is how the battery fires on the Boeing 787 are thought to have started.

“The fern shape is particularly difficult to stop because of its nanoscale tip,” said Siu On Tung, a graduate student in Kotov’s lab, as well as chief technology officer at Elegus. “It was very important that the fibers formed smaller pores than the tip size.”

While the widths of pores in other membranes are a few hundred nanometers, or a few hundred-thousandths of a centimeter, the pores in the membrane developed at U-M are 15-to-20 nanometers across. They are large enough to let individual lithium ions pass, but small enough to block the 20-to-50-nanometer tips of the fern-structures.

The researchers made the membrane by layering the fibers on top of each other in thin sheets. This method keeps the chain-like molecules in the plastic stretched out, which is important for good lithium-ion conductivity between the electrodes, Tung said.

“The special feature of this material is we can make it very thin, so we can get more energy into the same battery cell size, or we can shrink the cell size,” said Dan VanderLey, an engineer who helped found Elegus through U-M’s Master of Entrepreneurship program. “We’ve seen a lot of interest from people looking to make thinner products.”

Thirty companies have requested samples of the material.

Kevlar’s heat resistance could also lead to safer batteries as the membrane stands a better chance of surviving a fire than most membranes currently in use.

While the team is satisfied with the membrane’s ability to block the lithium dendrites, they are currently looking for ways to improve the flow of loose lithium ions so that batteries can charge and release their energy more quickly.

For anyone unfamiliar with the Boeing 787 Dreamliner fires, caused by lithium-ion batteries, these Boeing fires and others are mentioned in my May 29, 2013 post (Life-cycle assessment for electric vehicle lithium-ion batteries and nanotechnology is a risk analysis) scroll down about 50% of the way.

As for the research paper, here’s a link and a citation,

A dendrite-suppressing composite ion conductor from aramid nanofibres by Siu-On Tung, Szushen Ho, Ming Yang, Ruilin Zhang, & Nicholas A. Kotov. Nature Communications 6, Article number: 6152 doi:10.1038/ncomms7152 Published 27 January 2015

This paper is behind a paywall.

You can find out more about Elegus Technologies here.

A use for fullerenes—inside insulation plastic for high-voltage cables

A Jan. 27, 2015 news item on Nanowerk, describes research which suggests that there may a new use for buckminsterfullerenes (or what they’re calling ‘carbon nanoballs’),

Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology [Sweden] have discovered that the insulation plastic used in high-voltage cables can withstand a 26 per cent higher voltage if nanometer-sized carbon balls are added. This could result in enormous efficiency gains in the power grids of the future, which are needed to achieve a sustainable energy system.

The renewable energy sources of tomorrow will often be found far away from the end user. Wind turbines, for example, are most effective when placed out at sea. Solar energy will have the greatest impact on the European energy system if focus is on transport of solar power from North Africa and Southern Europe to Northern Europe.

“Reducing energy losses during electric power transmission is one of the most important factors for the energy systems of the future,” says Chalmers researcher Christian Müller. “The other two are development of renewable energy sources and technologies for energy storage.”

The Jan. 27, 2015 Chalmers University of Technology press release (also on EurekAlert) by Johanna Wilde, which originated the news item, provides more information about the research,

Together with colleagues from Chalmers and the company Borealis in Stenungsund, he [Müller] has found a powerful method for reducing energy losses in alternating current cables.  The results were recently published in Advanced Materials, a highly ranked scientific journal.

The researchers have shown that different variants of the C60 carbon ball, a nanomaterial in the fullerene molecular group, provide strong protection against breakdown of the insulation plastic used in high-voltage cables. Today the voltage in the cables has to be limited to prevent the insulation layer from getting damaged. The higher the voltage the more electrons can leak out into the insulation material, a process which leads to breakdown.

It is sufficient to add very small amounts of fullerene to the insulation plastic for it to withstand a voltage that is 26 per cent higher, without the material breaking down, than the voltage that plastic without the additive can withstand.

“Being able to increase the voltage to this extent would result in enormous efficiency gains in power transmission all over the world,” says Christian Müller. “A major issue in the industry is how transmission efficiency can be improved without making the power cables thicker, since they are already very heavy and difficult to handle.”

Using additives to protect the insulation plastic has been a known concept since the 1970s, but until now it has been unknown exactly what and how much to add. Consequently, additives are currently not used at all for the purpose, and the insulation material is manufactured with the highest possible degree of chemical purity.

In recent years, other researchers have experimented with fullerenes in the electrically conductive parts of high-voltage cables. Until now, though, it has been unknown that the substance can be beneficial for the insulation material.

The Chalmers researchers have now demonstrated that fullerenes are the best voltage stabilizers identified for insulation plastic thus far. This means they have a hitherto unsurpassed ability to capture electrons and thus protect other molecules from being destroyed by the electrons.

To arrive at these findings, the researchers tested a number of molecules that are also used within organic solar cell research at Chalmers. The molecules were tested using several different methods, and were added to pieces of insulation plastic used for high-voltage cables. The pieces of plastic were then subjected to an increasing electric field until they crackled. Fullerenes turned out to be the type of additive that most effectively protects the insulation plastic.

The press release includes some facts about buckyballs or buckminsterfullerenes or fullerenes or C60 or carbon nanoballs, depending on what you want to call them,

 Facts: Carbon ball C60

  • The C60 carbon ball is also called buckminsterfullerene. It consists of 60 carbon atoms that are placed so that the molecule resembles a nanometer-sized football. C60 is included in the fullerene molecular class.
  • Fullerenes were discovered in 1985, which resulted in the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1996. They have unique electronic qualities and have been regarded as very promising material for several applications. Thus far, however, there have been few industrial usage areas.
  • Fullerenes are one of the five forms of pure carbon that exist. The other four are graphite, graphene/carbon nanotubes, diamond and amorphous carbon, for example soot.

Here’s a link to and a citation for the research paper,

A New Application Area for Fullerenes: Voltage Stabilizers for Power Cable Insulation by Markus Jarvid, Anette Johansson, Renee Kroon, Jonas M. Bjuggren, Harald Wutzel, Villgot Englund, Stanislaw Gubanski, Mats R. Andersson, and Christian Müller. Advanced Materials DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404306 Article first published online: 12 DEC 2014

© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

This paper is behind a paywall.

Here’s an image of wind turbines, an example of equipment which could benefit greatly from better insulation.,

Images: Lina Bertling, Jan-Olof Yxell, Carolina Eek Jaworski, Anette Johansson, Markus Jarvid, Christian Müller

Images: Lina Bertling, Jan-Olof Yxell, Carolina Eek Jaworski, Anette Johansson, Markus Jarvid, Christian Müller

You can find this image and others by clicking on the Chalmers University press release link (assuming the page hasn’t been moved). You can find more information about Borealis (the company Müller is working with) here.

The perfect keyboard: it self-cleans and self-powers and it can identify its owner(s)

There’s a pretty nifty piece of technology being described in a Jan. 21, 2015 news item on Nanowerk, which focuses on the security aspects first (Note: A link has been removed),

In a novel twist in cybersecurity, scientists have developed a self-cleaning, self-powered smart keyboard that can identify computer users by the way they type. The device, reported in the journal ACS Nano (“Personalized Keystroke Dynamics for Self-Powered Human–Machine Interfacing”), could help prevent unauthorized users from gaining direct access to computers.

A Jan. 21, 2015 American Chemical Society (ACS) news release (also on EurekAlert), which originated the news item, continues with the keyboard’s security features before briefly mentioning the keyboard’s self-powering and self-cleaning capabilities,

Zhong Lin Wang and colleagues note that password protection is one of the most common ways we control who can log onto our computers — and see the private information we entrust to them. But as many recent high-profile stories about hacking and fraud have demonstrated, passwords are themselves vulnerable to theft. So Wang’s team set out to find a more secure but still cost-effective and user-friendly approach to safeguarding what’s on our computers.

The researchers developed a smart keyboard that can sense typing patterns — including the pressure applied to keys and speed — that can accurately distinguish one individual user from another. So even if someone knows your password, he or she cannot access your computer because that person types in a different way than you would. It also can harness the energy generated from typing to either power itself or another small device. And the special surface coating repels dirt and grime. The scientists conclude that the keyboard could provide an additional layer of protection to boost the security of our computer systems.

Here’s a link to and a citation for the paper,

Personalized Keystroke Dynamics for Self-Powered Human–Machine Interfacing by Jun Chen, Guang Zhu, Jin Yang, Qingshen Jing, Peng Bai, Weiqing Yang, Xuewei Qi, Yuanjie Su, and Zhong Lin Wang. ACS Nano, Article ASAP DOI: 10.1021/nn506832w Publication Date (Web): December 30, 2014

Copyright © 2014 American Chemical Society

This paper is behind a paywall. I did manage a peek at the paper and found that the keyboard is able to somehow harvest the mechanical energy of typing and turn it into electricity so it can self-power. Self-cleaning is made possible by a nanostructure surface modification. An idle thought and a final comment. First, I wonder what happens if you want to or have to share your keyboard? Second, a Jan. 21, 2015 article about the intelligent keyboard by Luke Dormehl for Fast Company notes that the researchers are from the US and China and names two of the institutions involved in this collaboration, Georgia Institute of Technology and the Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems,.

ETA Jan. 23, 2015: There’s a Georgia Institute of Technology Jan. 21, 2015 news release on EurekAlert about the intelligent keyboard which offers more technical details such as these,

Conventional keyboards record when a keystroke makes a mechanical contact, indicating the press of a specific key. The intelligent keyboard records each letter touched, but also captures information about the amount of force applied to the key and the length of time between one keystroke and the next. Such typing style is unique to individuals, and so could provide a new biometric for securing computers from unauthorized use.

In addition to providing a small electrical current for registering the key presses, the new keyboard could also generate enough electricity to charge a small portable electronic device or power a transmitter to make the keyboard wireless.

An effect known as contact electrification generates current when the user’s fingertips touch a plastic material on which a layer of electrode material has been coated. Voltage is generated through the triboelectric and electrostatic induction effects. Using the triboelectric effect, a small charge can be produced whenever materials are brought into contact and then moved apart.

“Our skin is dielectric and we have electrostatic charges in our fingers,” Wang noted. “Anything we touch can become charged.”

Instead of individual mechanical keys as in traditional keyboards, Wang’s intelligent keyboard is made up of vertically-stacked transparent film materials. Researchers begin with a layer of polyethylene terephthalate between two layers of indium tin oxide (ITO) that form top and bottom electrodes.

Next, a layer of fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) is applied onto the ITO surface to serve as an electrification layer that generates triboelectric charges when touched by fingertips. FEP nanowire arrays are formed on the exposed FEP surface through reactive ion etching.

The keyboard’s operation is based on coupling between contact electrification and electrostatic induction, rather than the traditional mechanical switching. When a finger contacts the FEP, charge is transferred at the contact interface, injecting electrons from the skin into the material and creating a positive charge.

When the finger moves away, the negative charges on the FEP side induces positive charges on the top electrode, and equal amounts of negative charges on the bottom electrode. Consecutive keystrokes produce a periodic electrical field that drives reciprocating flows of electrons between the electrodes. Though eventually dissipating, the charges remain on the FEP surface for an extended period of time.

Wang believes the new smart keyboard will be competitive with existing keyboards, in both cost and durability. The new device is based on inexpensive materials that are widely used in the electronics industry.

PlasCarb: producing graphene and renewable hydrogen from food waster

I have two tidbits about PlasCarb the first being an announcement of its existence and the second an announcement of its recently published research. A Jan. 13, 2015 news item on Nanowerk describes the PlasCarb project (Note: A link has been removed),

The Centre for Process Innovation (CPI) is leading a European collaborative project that aims to transform food waste into a sustainable source of significant economic added value, namely graphene and renewable hydrogen.

The project titled PlasCarb will transform biogas generated by the anaerobic digestion of food waste using an innovative low energy microwave plasma process to split biogas (methane and carbon dioxide) into high value graphitic carbon and renewable hydrogen.

A Jan. 13, 2015 CPI press release, which originated the news item, describes the project and its organization in greater detail,

CPI  as the coordinator of the project is responsible for the technical aspects in the separation of biogas into methane and carbon dioxide, and separating of the graphitic carbon produced from the renewable hydrogen. The infrastructure at CPI allows for the microwave plasma process to be trialled and optimised at pilot production scale, with a future technology roadmap devised for commercial scale manufacturing.

Graphene is one of the most interesting inventions of modern times. Stronger than steel, yet light, the material conducts electricity and heat. It has been used for a wide variety of applications, from strengthening tennis rackets, spray on radiators, to building semiconductors, electric circuits and solar cells.

The sustainable creation of graphene and renewable hydrogen from food waste in provides a sustainable method towards dealing with food waste problem that the European Union faces. It is estimated that 90 million tonnes of food is wasted each year, a figure which could rise to approximately 126 million tonnes by 2020. In the UK alone, food waste equates to a financial loss to business of at least £5 billion per year.

Dr Keith Robson, Director of Formulation and Flexible Manufacturing at CPI said, “PlasCarb will provide an innovative solution to the problems associated with food waste, which is one of the biggest challenges that the European Union faces in the strive towards a low carbon economy.  The project will not only seek to reduce food waste but also use new technological methods to turn it into renewable energy resources which themselves are of economic value, and all within a sustainable manner.”

PlasCarb will utilise quality research and specialist industrial process engineering to optimise the quality and economic value of the Graphene and hydrogen, further enhancing the sustainability of the process life cycle.

Graphitic carbon has been identified as one of Europe’s economically critical raw materials and of strategic performance in the development of future emerging technologies. The global market for graphite, either mined or synthetic is worth over €10 billion per annum. Hydrogen is already used in significant quantities by industry and recognised with great potential as a future transport fuel for a low carbon economy. The ability to produce renewable hydrogen also has added benefits as currently 95% of hydrogen is produced from fossil fuels. Moreover, it is currently projected that increasing demand of raw materials from fossil sources will lead to price volatility, accelerated environmental degradation and rising political tensions over resource access.

Therefore, the latter stages of the project will be dedicated to the market uptake of the PlasCarb process and the output products, through the development of an economically sustainable business strategy, a financial risk assessment of the project results and a flexible financial model that is able to act as a primary screen of economic viability. Based on this, an economic analysis of the process will be determined. Through the development of a decentralised business model for widespread trans-European implementation, the valorisation of food waste will have the potential to be undertaken for the benefit of local economies and employment. More specifically, three interrelated post project exploitation markets have been defined: food waste management, high value graphite and RH2 sales.

PlasCarb is a 3-year collaborative project, co-funded under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) and will further reinforce Europe’s leading position in environmental technologies and innovation in high value Carbon. The consortium is composed of eight partners led by CPI from five European countries, whose complimentary research and industrial expertise will enable the required results to be successfully delivered. The project partners are; The Centre for Process Innovation (UK), GasPlas AS (NO), CNRS (FR), Fraunhofer IBP (DE), Uvasol Ltd (UK), GAP Waste Management (UK), Geonardo Ltd. (HU), Abalonyx AS (NO).

You can find PlasCarb here.

The second announcement can be found in a PlasCarb Jan. 14, 2015 press release announcing the publication of research on heterostructures of graphene ribbons,

Few materials have received as much attention from the scientific world or have raised so many hopes with a view to their potential deployment in new applications as graphene has. This is largely due to its superlative properties: it is the thinnest material in existence, almost transparent, the strongest, the stiffest and at the same time the most strechable, the best thermal conductor, the one with the highest intrinsic charge carrier mobility, plus many more fascinating features. Specifically, its electronic properties can vary enormously through its confinement inside nanostructured systems, for example. That is why ribbons or rows of graphene with nanometric widths are emerging as tremendously interesting electronic components. On the other hand, due to the great variability of electronic properties upon minimal changes in the structure of these nanoribbons, exact control on an atomic level is an indispensable requirement to make the most of all their potential.

The lithographic techniques used in conventional nanotechnology do not yet have such resolution and precision. In the year 2010, however, a way was found to synthesise nanoribbons with atomic precision by means of the so-called molecular self-assembly. Molecules designed for this purpose are deposited onto a surface in such a way that they react with each other and give rise to perfectly specified graphene nanoribbons by means of a highly reproducible process and without any other external mediation than heating to the required temperature. In 2013 a team of scientists from the University of Berkeley and the Centre for Materials Physics (CFM), a mixed CSIC (Spanish National Research Council) and UPV/EHU (University of the Basque Country) centre, extended this very concept to new molecules that were forming wider graphene nanoribbons and therefore with new electronic properties. This same group has now managed to go a step further by creating, through this self-assembly, heterostructures that blend segments of graphene nanoribbons of two different widths.

The forming of heterostructures with different materials has been a concept widely used in electronic engineering and has enabled huge advances to be made in conventional electronics. “We have now managed for the first time to form heterostructures of graphene nanoribbons modulating their width on a molecular level with atomic precision. What is more, their subsequent characterisation by means of scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy, complemented with first principles theoretical calculations, has shown that it gives rise to a system with very interesting electronic properties which include, for example, the creation of what are known as quantum wells,” pointed out the scientist Dimas de Oteyza, who has participated in this project. This work, the results of which are being published this very week in the journal Nature Nanotechnology, therefore constitutes a significant success towards the desired deployment of graphene in commercial electronic applications.

Here’s a link to and a citation for the paper,

Molecular bandgap engineering of bottom-up synthesized graphene nanoribbon heterojunctions by Yen-Chia Chen, Ting Cao, Chen Chen, Zahra Pedramrazi, Danny Haberer, Dimas G. de Oteyza, Felix R. Fischer, Steven G. Louie, & Michael F. Crommie. Nature Nanotechnology (2015) doi:10.1038/nnano.2014.307 Published online 12 January 2015

This article is behind a paywall but there is a free preview available via ReadCube access.

A new approach to heating: warm the clothing not the room

A Jan. 7, 2015 news item on ScienceDaily describes a new type of textile which could change the way we use heat (energy),

To stay warm when temperatures drop outside, we heat our indoor spaces — even when no one is in them. But scientists have now developed a novel nanowire coating for clothes that can both generate heat and trap the heat from our bodies better than regular clothes. They report on their technology, which could help us reduce our reliance on conventional energy sources, in the ACS journal Nano Letters.

A Jan. 7, 2015 American Chemical Society (ACS) news release (also on EurekAlert), which originated the news item, provides more information about energy consumption and the researchers’ proposed solution,

Yi Cui [Stanford University] and colleagues note that nearly half of global energy consumption goes toward heating buildings and homes. But this comfort comes with a considerable environmental cost – it’s responsible for up to a third of the world’s total greenhouse gas emissions. Scientists and policymakers have tried to reduce the impact of indoor heating by improving insulation and construction materials to keep fuel-generated warmth inside. Cui’s team wanted to take a different approach and focus on people rather than spaces.

The researchers developed lightweight, breathable mesh materials that are flexible enough to coat normal clothes. When compared to regular clothing material, the special nanowire cloth trapped body heat far more effectively. Because the coatings are made out of conductive materials, they can also be actively warmed with an electricity source to further crank up the heat. The researchers calculated that their thermal textiles could save about 1,000 kilowatt hours per person every year — that’s about how much electricity an average U.S. home consumes in one month.

Here’s a link to and a citation for the paper,

Personal Thermal Management by Metallic Nanowire-Coated Textile by Po-Chun Hsu, Xiaoge Liu, Chong Liu, Xing Xie, Hye Ryoung Lee, Alex J. Welch, Tom Zhao, and Yi Cui. Nano Lett., Article ASAP DOI: 10.1021/nl5036572 Publication Date (Web): November 30, 2014
Copyright © 2014 American Chemical Society

This paper is behind a paywall.

Gold nanorod instabilities

A Dec. 8, 2014 news item on Nanowerk focuses on research from Australia,

Researchers at Swinburne University of Technology [Melbourne, Australia]  have discovered an instability in gold nanoparticles that is critical for their application in future technology.

Gold nanorods are important building blocks for future applications in solar cells, cancer therapy and optical circuitry.

However their stability is under question due to their peculiar reshaping behaviour below melting points.

A Dec. 8, 2014 Swinburne University of Technology press release, which originated the news item, discusses melting points and shape instabilities in the context of this research,

A solid normally does not change its shape unless it reaches its melting point, or surface melting points. It is also known that the melting point for nanoparticles is suppressed due to their size.

PhD student Adam Taylor (now a postdoctoral researcher at Swinburne) said it came as a surprise that reshaping is observed well below these melting points. Until now, no one could explain this peculiar behaviour.

“In our work, we have discovered both theoretically and experimentally that the reshaping mechanism for nanoparticles below melting point is surface atom diffusion, rather than melting,” Mr Taylor said.

Surface atom diffusion is a process involving the motion of molecules at solid material surfaces that can generally be thought of in terms of particles jumping between adjacent adsorption sites on a surface.

“Surface atom diffusion always existed in bulk solids, but this is the first evidence that its effect is enhanced at the nano-size, dominating over the traditional theory of melting,” Associate Professor James Chon, who is supervising Mr Taylor’s research, said.

Mr Taylor said the more finely nanoparticles are shaped, the less stable they become.

“This is important, for example, for solar panel manufacturers as the more needle-like these nanoparticles are shaped the less stable they become. If you put these particles into a solar panel to concentrate light they may not last long in the sun before they degrade,” Mr Taylor said.

“This discovery will be crucial for future applications of gold nanorods, as people will need to reconsider their stability when applying them to solar cells, cancer therapeutic agents and optical circuitry.”

The researchers have provided an illustration of their work,

Courtesy Swinburne University of Technology

Courtesy Swinburne University of Technology

Here’s a link to and citation for the research,

Below Melting Point Photothermal Reshaping of Single Gold Nanorods Driven by Surface Diffusion by Adam B. Taylor, Arif M. Siddiquee, and James W. M. Chon. ACS Nano, Article ASAP DOI: 10.1021/nn5055283 Publication Date (Web): November 18, 2014

Copyright © 2014 American Chemical Society

This paper is behind a paywall but should you be in Australia and eligible to attend, there’s another opportunity to learn more; Taylor will be presenting his work at the Australian Institute of Physics conference on December 10, 2014 in Canberra.

Spray-on solar cells from the University of Toronto (Canada)

It’s been a while since there’s been a solar cell story from the University of Toronto (U of T) and I was starting to wonder if Ted (Edward) Sargent had moved to another educational institution. The drought has ended with the announcement of three research papers being published by researchers from Sargent’s U of T laboratory. From a Dec. 5, 2014 ScienceDaily news item,

Pretty soon, powering your tablet could be as simple as wrapping it in cling wrap.

That’s Illan Kramer’s … hope. Kramer and colleagues have just invented a new way to spray solar cells onto flexible surfaces using miniscule light-sensitive materials known as colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) — a major step toward making spray-on solar cells easy and cheap to manufacture.

A Dec. 4, 2014 University of Toronto news release (also on EurekAlert) by Marit Mitchell, which originated the news item, gives a bit more detail about the technology (Note: Links have been removed),

 Solar-sensitive CQDs printed onto a flexible film could be used to coat all kinds of weirdly-shaped surfaces, from patio furniture to an airplane’s wing. A surface the size of a car roof wrapped with CQD-coated film would produce enough energy to power three 100-watt light bulbs – or 24 compact fluorescents.

He calls his system sprayLD, a play on the manufacturing process called ALD, short for atomic layer deposition, in which materials are laid down on a surface one atom-thickness at a time.

Until now, it was only possible to incorporate light-sensitive CQDs onto surfaces through batch processing – an inefficient, slow and expensive assembly-line approach to chemical coating. SprayLD blasts a liquid containing CQDs directly onto flexible surfaces, such as film or plastic, like printing a newspaper by applying ink onto a roll of paper. This roll-to-roll coating method makes incorporating solar cells into existing manufacturing processes much simpler. In two recent papers in the journals Advanced Materials and Applied Physics Letters, Kramer showed that the sprayLD method can be used on flexible materials without any major loss in solar-cell efficiency.

Kramer built his sprayLD device using parts that are readily available and rather affordable – he sourced a spray nozzle used in steel mills to cool steel with a fine mist of water, and a few regular air brushes from an art store.

“This is something you can build in a Junkyard Wars fashion, which is basically how we did it,” says Kramer. “We think of this as a no-compromise solution for shifting from batch processing to roll-to-roll.”

“As quantum dot solar technology advances rapidly in performance, it’s important to determine how to scale them and make this new class of solar technologies manufacturable,” said Professor Ted Sargent, vice-dean, research in the Faculty of Applied Science & Engineering at University of Toronto and Kramer’s supervisor. “We were thrilled when this attractively-manufacturable spray-coating process also led to superior performance devices showing improved control and purity.”

In a third paper in the journal ACS Nano, Kramer and his colleagues used IBM’s BlueGeneQ supercomputer to model how and why the sprayed CQDs perform just as well as – and in some cases better than – their batch-processed counterparts. This work was supported by the IBM Canada Research and Development Centre, and by King Abdullah University of Science and Technology.

For those who would like to see the sprayLD device,

Here are links and citation for all three papers,

Efficient Spray-Coated Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells by Illan J. Kramer, James C. Minor, Gabriel Moreno-Bautista, Lisa Rollny, Pongsakorn Kanjanaboos, Damir Kopilovic, Susanna M. Thon, Graham H. Carey, Kang Wei Chou, David Zhitomirsky, Aram Amassian, and Edward H. Sargent. Advanced Materials DOI: 10.1002/adma.201403281 Article first published online: 10 NOV 2014

© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

Colloidal quantum dot solar cells on curved and flexible substrates by Illan J. Kramer, Gabriel Moreno-Bautista, James C. Minor, Damir Kopilovic, and Edward H. Sargent. Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 163902 (2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4898635 Published online 21 October 2014

© 2014 AIP Publishing LLC

Electronically Active Impurities in Colloidal Quantum Dot Solids by Graham H. Carey, Illan J. Kramer, Pongsakorn Kanjanaboos, Gabriel Moreno-Bautista, Oleksandr Voznyy, Lisa Rollny, Joel A. Tang, Sjoerd Hoogland, and Edward H. Sargent. ACS Nano, 2014, 8 (11), pp 11763–11769 DOI: 10.1021/nn505343e Publication Date (Web): November 6, 2014

Copyright © 2014 American Chemical Society

All three papers are behind paywalls.

Given the publication dates for the papers, this looks like an attempt to get some previously announced research noticed by sending out a summary news release using a new ‘hook’ to get attention. I hope it works for them as it must be disheartening to have your research sink into obscurity because the announcements were issued during one or more busy news cycles.

One final note, if I understand the news release correctly, this work is still largely theoretical as there don’t seem to have been any field tests.

Peter Sircom Bromley’s documentary: No Carbon Nation released December 2014

I don’t usually include information of this type, a documentary about policy, energy, and sustainability (in other words, no nano, no research focus, no art) on my blog. However, one good turn deserves another. and Peter Bromely offered me a good turn a few years ago.

Here’s the text of the Dec. 1, 2014, news release sent out in support of No Carbon Nation,

The conceptual framework for climate action is straightforward and applies to all jurisdictions around the world. However, in order to coordinate effective action, and gain political support for it, it’s important that people everywhere be clear on that framework. This is one of the main ideas behind No Carbon Nation: pathways to sustainable energy, an independent documentary released on the internet today.

No Carbon Nation focuses on energy transition, which is the centerpiece of climate policy in progressive jurisdictions worldwide. Beginning with an introductory overview of climate diplomacy as organized by the Kyoto Protocol, the documentary offers the viewer a basic understanding of the energy sector and summarizes the technological and regulatory tools available to make the required changes to it. No Carbon Nation also identifies institutional behavior as a major barrier to change. “Individuals and institutions tend to rely heavily on what they’ve done before. There is no reward for making the effort to change,” says the filmmaker, Peter Sircom Bromley, based in Vancouver, Canada. “The world has all the technical and regulatory tools it needs to avoid dangerous climate change. We just need to collectively bite the bullet.”

As a documentary, No Carbon Nation is a distilled, tightly edited, relentless, and sometimes lyrical compilation of what progressive jurisdictions and industries worldwide are doing – and not doing – to reduce human impacts on the climate. It is punctuated by interviews with professionals on the front lines of energy transition, including management personnel at the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP), the largest municipal utility in the US. The LADWP operates in a jurisdiction with some of the most ambitious greenhouse gas emission reduction policies in the world.

The demand side of energy

Fossil fuel producers get scant attention in the film. “Oil, gas and coal suppliers are simply feeding the world’s energy systems. So stopping fossil fuel combustion, the main contributor to climate change, means changing those systems. In other words, we need to deal with the demand side,” says the filmmaker, a former Sierra Club director who has been engaged with climate policy since 1995. “And that means transforming energy systems across all sectors of the world economy: electricity generation, transportation, buildings and heavy industry.”

The film is “sort of like dots on a map, identifying pressure points where action is more effective and actually taking place. In that sense it’s not complicated,” says Bromley. “Call it a feature length public service announcement. Hopefully viewers who manage to sit through it will find the film a useful primer for climate action – be it buying an electric vehicle, giving clear directives to their government representatives, or switching off a light.”

Internet provides significant content

Almost half the footage used in the documentary came from diverse online sources including the US Department of Energy, the European Commission, and The Newsmarket, as did eight of 24 interviews and sound bites. “Lots of people are making excellent material on the topic available. Why duplicate their efforts?” Bromley says, adding that the project was largely a writing and editing challenge. “The main thing was to make a highly complex and diverse set of issues easy to understand – both for the viewer, and for myself,” he chuckles. “It’s like McLuhan said: give people too much information and they instantly resort to pattern recognition.”

The documentary, in 720 HD, is free to watch online (www.NoCarbonNation.net) as a complete film, or in four parts for those who prefer to pace themselves through the full 94 minutes. A website is built around the documentary, and provides viewers with links to explore the subject in greater detail. However, a more leisurely viewing experience can be had with a large screen and a good sound system. The documentary and website will be updated from time to time. “Things are changing pretty fast,” says the filmmaker.

contact: Peter Sircom Bromley

[email protected]

From what I’ve seen of part one, this is a deeply felt and intense piece of filmmaking dedicated to a topic, energy policy, that would seem highly unsuited to this treatment. Bravo to Peter Sircom Bromley for finding a way to make it cinematic and accessible!

Canadian nano: Lomiko Metals and its graphene supercapacitor project and NanoTech Security at a TEDx in Vancouver (Canada)

As best I can determine Lomiko Metals is involved in a graphene-based supercapacitor project with at least two interlocking pieces. Piece one is described in an Oct. 28, 2014 news item on Azonano,

Lomiko Metals Inc. and its 100% owned subsidiary Lomiko Technologies Inc. are pleased to announce an agreement to license from Megahertz Power Systems Ltd. rights to manufacture and sell three (3) power converter system designs, acquire a pending supply contract with a Canadian LED system integrator and support the research and development of new products.

“The Power Converter Market is a multi-billion dollar market. With the increasing demand for energy-efficient electronic devices, the advent of re-chargeable batteries and the new market for quick-charge supercapacitors, Lomiko has the opportunity to move into a growing market with a profitable business model.”, stated A. Paul Gill, CEO. [emphasis mine]

Lomiko will establish cash-flow under the current Customer Contract within six months which is based on proven and in-demand devices designed by MegaHertz. The creation of an e-commerce site in three to four (3-4) months will increase the customer base for the Licensed Power Systems over the estimated five (5) year product cycle. In the long term, Lomiko and MegaHertz will work on innovative new designs that power products using graphite and graphene based devices to dramatically raise operating efficiencies and help reduce the energy waste for the Electronic equipment, Energy Storage and Automotive Industries worldwide. [emphasis mine]

You can read more about the details in the Azonano news item or in the Lomiko Metals Oct. 27, 2014 news release.

As for piece two, Lomiko Metals has announced a supecapacitor project which would seem to align with the objectives mentioned in the October 2014 MegaHertz deal “… Lomiko and MegaHertz will work on innovative new designs that power products using graphite and graphene based devices to dramatically raise operating efficiencies and help reduce the energy waste … .” From a Dec. 4, 2014 news item on Azonano,

Lomiko Metals Inc. is very pleased to announce it has signed an agreement to invest in a new graphene-related venture, Graphene Energy Storage Devices (Graphene ESD Corp.), a U.S. Corporation.

On December 4, 2013, Lomiko reported on a successful conclusion to Phase I of its Graphene Supercapacitor Project which involved Graphene Laboratories Inc. and Stony Brook University. Graphene ESD Corp. has been formed to commercialize the technology and bring the graphene-based energy storage devices to market.

Supercapacitors bridge the gap between conventional capacitors and rechargeable batteries. They store the most energy per unit volume or mass (energy density) among capacitors. Supercapacitors power density is generally 10 to 100 times greater than normal capacitors or batteries. This results in much shorter charge/discharge cycles than batteries. Additionally, they will tolerate many more charge and discharge cycles than batteries. Incorporation of graphene material in supercapacitor electrodes may further improve energy and power density of the device. Graphene ESD Corp. will develop low-cost graphene-based supercapacitor devices that will be capable of even higher discharge currents. The development will focus on large-scale devices that are projected to have the lowest cost of power and stored energy in its class.

“As reported December 4, 2013, the Phase I Graphene Supercapacitor project yielded encouraging results. Graphene ESD Corp. will build on the success of this project and will be developing a graphene-based supercapacitor. [emphasis mine] The device is designed as a versatile energy storage solution for electronics, electric vehicles and electric grid.” stated A. Paul Gill, CEO of Lomiko Metals Inc. [emphasis mine] Graphene is finding new application in sensors, electronics, and advanced materials. Energy storage is a rapidly developing field which can benefit from the outstanding properties of graphene. We believe that graphene-based devices will deliver the best value for multiple energy storage applications.”

You can find more details both in the Azonano news item and in the Lomiko Metals Dec. 3, 2014 news release.

The second half of this post’s headline concerns a talk by Clint Landrock, Executive Vice President of Products for NanoTech Security Corp. and more, at the Renfrew-Collingwood (a neighbourhood in Vancouver, Canada) TEDx. From an Oct. 29, 2014 news item on Azonano,

Nanotech Security Corp. today announced that Vice President Clint Landrock presented at TEDxRenfrewCollingwood. The independently organized TED event was held on October 24, 2014.

The day-long event brought together more than 400 creators, catalysis, designers and thinkers from the Vancouver area to share ideas around the theme “Rock, Paper, Scissors.” Landrock presented on the influence of nature on innovation in technology, using Nanotech’s story as one example of what can be achieved when companies turn to nature as a source of inspiration. …

Landrock’s talk (a little over 11 mins. running time) has now been posted on YouTube or you can find it here. The organizers have posted this description of Landrock,

Clint serves as the Executive Vice President of Products for NanoTech Security Corp., and is a co-founder of IDME Technologies Corp.  He is an expert in the study of nano-optics and biomimicry. Clint currently holds several patents and over a dozen peer-reviewed publications in the field. He completed his bachelor degree in aerospace engineering at Ryerson Polytechnic University in Toronto, and his Masters of Applied Sciences at Simon Fraser University. Clint’s interests include commercial applications of nanotechnology and smart polymers, biomimicry, alpine and rock climbing and generally being outside.

I haven’t watched the talk in its entirety but he starts with the wonder and the dark side of technology. As his company, NanoTech Security, is a spin-off from Simon Fraser University and the technology is based on the nanostructures found on the Blue Morpho butterfly’s wing, I imagine the rest of his talk consists of biomimcry and ways of imitating nature as a means of dealing with the damaging aspects resulting from some of our current technologies.

India, Lockheed Martin, and canal-top solar power plants

Apparently the state of Gujarat (India) has inspired at least one other state, Punjab, to build (they hope) a network of photovoltaic (solar energy) plants over top of their canal system (from a Nov. 16, 2014 article by Mridul Chadha for cleantechnica.com),

India’s northern state of Punjab plans to set up 1,000 MW of solar PV projects to cover several kilometres of canals over the next three years. The state government has announced a target to cover 5,000 km of canals across the state. Through this program, the government hopes to generate 15% of the state’s total electricity demand.

Understandably, the construction of canal-top power plants is technically and structurally very different from rooftop or ground-based solar PV projects. The mounting structures for the solar PV modules cannot be heavy, as it could adversely impact the structural integrity of the canal itself. The structures should be easy to work with, as they are to be set up over a slope.

This is where the Punjab government has asked Lockheed Martin for help. The US-based company has entered into an agreement with the Punjab government to develop lightweight mounting structures for solar panels using nanotechnology.

Canal and rooftop solar power projects are the only viable options for Punjab as it is an agricultural state and land availability for large-scale ground-mounted projects remains an issue. As a result, the state government has a relatively lower (compared to other states) capacity addition target of 2 GW.

There’s more about the Punjab and current plans to increase its investment in solar photovoltaics in the article.

Here’s an image of a canal-top solar plant near Kadi (Gujarat),

Canal_Top_Solar_Power_PlantImage Credit: Hitesh vip | CC BY-SA 3.0

A Nov. 15, 2014 news item by Kamya Kandhar for efytimes.com provides a few more details about this Memorandum of Understanding (MOU),

Punjab government had announced its tie up with U.S. aerospace giant Lockheed Martin to expand the solar power generation and overcome power problems in the State. As per the agreement, the state will put in 1,000 MW solar power within the next three years. Lockheed Martin has agreed to provide plastic structures for solar panels on canals by using nano technology.

While commenting upon the agreement, a spokesperson said, “The company would also provide state-of-the-art technology to convert paddy straw into energy, solving the lingering problem of paddy straw burning in the state. The Punjab government and Lockheed Martin would ink a MoU in this regard [on Friday, Nov. 14, 2014].”

The decision was taken during a meeting between three-member team from Lockheed Martin, involving the CEO Phil Shaw, Chief Innovation Officer Tushar Shah and Regional Director Jagmohan Singh along with Punjab Non-Conventional Energy Minister Bikram Singh Majithia and other senior Punjab officials.

As for paddy straw and its conversion into energy, there’s this from a Nov. 14, 2014 news item on India West.com,

Shaw [CEO Phil Shaw] said Lockheed has come out with waste-to-energy conversion solutions with successful conversion of waste products to electricity, heat and fuel by using gasification processes. He said it was an environmentally friendly green recycling technology, which requires little space and the plants are fully automated.

Getting back to the nanotechnology, I was not able to track down any information about nanotechnology-enabled plastics and Lockheed Martin. But, there is a Dec. 11, 2013 interview with Travis Earles, Lockheed Martin Advanced materials and nanotechnology innovation executive and policy leader, written up by Kris Walker for Azonano. Note: this is a general interview and focuses largely on applications for carbon nanotubes and graphene.