Category Archives: clothing

Space cloth (Zephlinear): a new technique for producing textiles

A lightweight zephlinear scarf with LEDs Courtesy: Nottingham Trent University

A lightweight zephlinear [space cloth]  scarf with LEDs Courtesy: Nottingham Trent University

What makes the scarf in the preceding image unusual is that the yarn hasn’t been knitted or woven. A Sept. 21, 2016 news item on describes the work,

Sonia Reynolds invented ‘space cloth’ – the first non-woven material made from yarn. It has a strong potential for use as a smart textile due to its unique structure with space to encase copper wiring, light emitting diodes (LEDs) and more.

Ms Reynolds brought the idea to Nottingham Trent University’s Advanced Textile Research Group and is now undertaking a PhD in the subject to further develop the fabric’s novel manufacturing process under the direction of Professor Tilak Dias and Dr Amanda Briggs-Goode, of the School of Art and Design.

Scientifically named Zephlinear, unlike traditional woven or knitted materials which are made by the interloping or interlacing of yarns, it is made by a newly established technique known as yarn surface entanglement.

A Sept. 21, 2016 Nottingham Trent University press release, which originated the news item, provides more information,

Ms Reynolds said: “This is a real breakthrough for the textiles industry. It’s the first non-woven material made from yarn and promises major benefits for the future of clothing, and more.

“Because of the material’s linear channels of yarn, it has great potential to be used as a smart textile. In particular, we believe it lends itself well to being embedded with microcapsules containing medication or scent, to either help deliver drugs to specific parts of the body or to create antibacterial and aromatic clothing.

“As the material is visually different, it has potential to be used for other applications as well, such as wall coverings, in addition to clothing.

“And because it’s much less labour intensive to make than knit or weave fabrics, it’s a more environmentally friendly material to produce as well.”

The name, Zephlinear, derives from the merger of two words, zephyr and linear. It was given the nickname ‘space cloth’ due to its appearance and its e-textile capabilities.

The material – which is patent pending – was recently presented at the Wearable Technology Show, USA, by Ms Reynolds.

Research shows that it is strongest and most efficient when created from natural yarns such as one hundred per cent wool, hair and wool/silk mixtures, though it can also be made from synthetic yarns.

Professor Dias, who leads the university’s Advanced Textiles Research Group, said: “Zephlinear is a remarkable development in an industry which is advancing at an incredible pace.

“We believe it has huge potential for textiles, and we have already found that it combines well with e-textile technologies such as heated textiles or textiles with embedded LEDs.

“As a fabric it is very lightweight and flexible, and it retracts back to its original shape well after it has been stretched.

“We’re very much looking forward to developing the material further and feel certain that it will help provide people with smarter and more environmentally friendly clothing in the future”.

Here’s an image of Sonia Reynolds with another Zephlinear scarf,

Sonia Reynolds with a zephlinear scarf Courtesy Nottingham Trent University

Sonia Reynolds with a zephlinear scarf Courtesy Nottingham Trent University

This is the first time I’ve heard of a ‘smart’ or ‘e’ textile that works better when a natural fiber is used.

Cientifica’s latest smart textiles and wearable electronics report

After publishing a report on wearable technology in May 2016 (see my June 2, 2016 posting), Cientifica has published another wearable technology report, this one is titled, Smart Textiles and Wearables: Markets, Applications and Technologies. Here’s more about the latest report from the report order page,

“Smart Textiles and Wearables: Markets, Applications and Technologies” examines the markets for textile based wearable technologies, the companies producing them and the enabling technologies. This is creating a 4th industrial revolution for the textiles and fashion industry worth over $130 billion by 2025.

Advances in fields such as nanotechnology, organic electronics (also known as plastic electronics) and conducting polymers are creating a range of textile–based technologies with the ability to sense and react to the world around them.  This includes monitoring biometric data such as heart rate, the environmental factors such as temperature and The presence of toxic gases producing real time feedback in the form of electrical stimuli, haptic feedback or changes in color.

The report identifies three distinct generations of textile wearable technologies.

First generation is where a sensor is attached to apparel and is the approach currently taken by major sportswear brands such as Adidas, Nike and Under Armour
Second generation products embed the sensor in the garment as demonstrated by products from Samsung, Alphabet, Ralph Lauren and Flex.
In third generation wearables the garment is the sensor and a growing number of companies including AdvanPro, Tamicare and BeBop sensors are making rapid progress in creating pressure, strain and temperature sensors.

Third generation wearables represent a significant opportunity for new and established textile companies to add significant value without having to directly compete with Apple, Samsung and Intel.

The report predicts that the key growth areas will be initially sports and wellbeing

followed by medical applications for patient monitoring. Technical textiles, fashion and entertainment will also be significant applications with the total market expected to rise to over $130 billion by 2025 with triple digit compound annual growth rates across many applications.

The rise of textile wearables also represents a significant opportunity for manufacturers of the advanced materials used in their manufacture. Toray, Panasonic, Covestro, DuPont and Toyobo are already suppling the necessary materials, while researchers are creating sensing and energy storage technologies, from flexible batteries to graphene supercapacitors which will power tomorrows wearables. The report details the latest advances and their applications.

This report is based on an extensive research study of the wearables and smart textile markets backed with over a decade of experience in identifying, predicting and sizing markets for nanotechnologies and smart textiles. Detailed market figures are given from 2016-2025, along with an analysis of the key opportunities, and illustrated with 139 figures and 6 tables.

The September 2016 report is organized differently and has a somewhat different focus from the report published in May 2016. Not having read either report, I’m guessing that while there might be a little repetition, you might better consider them to be companion volumes.

Here’s more from the September 2016 report’s table of contents which you can download from the order page (Note: The formatting has been changed),


Contents  1
List of Tables  4
List of Figures  4
Introduction  8
How to Use This Report  8
Wearable Technologies and the 4Th Industrial Revolution  9
The Evolution of Wearable Technologies  10
Defining Smart Textiles  15
Factors Affecting The Adoption of Smart Textiles for Wearables  18
Cost  18
Accuracy  18
On Shoring  19
Power management  19
Security and Privacy  20
Markets  21
Total Market Growth and CAGR  21
Market Growth By Application  21
Adding Value To Textiles Through Technology  27
How Nanomaterials Add Functionality and Value  31
Business Models  33
Applications  35
Sports and Wellbeing  35
1st Generation Technologies  35
Under Armour Healthbox Wearables  35
Adidas MiCoach  36
Sensoria  36
EMPA’s Long Term Research  39
2nd Generation Technologies  39
Google’s Project Jacquard  39
Samsung Creative Lab  43
Microsoft Collaborations  44
Intel Systems on a Chip  44
Flex (Formerly Flextronics) and MAS Holdings  45
Jiobit  46
Asensei Personal Trainer  47
OmSignal Smart Clothing  48
Ralph Lauren PoloTech  49
Hexoskin Performance Management  50
Jabil Circuit Textile Heart Monitoring  51
Stretch Sense Sensors  52
NTT Data and Toray  54
Goldwin Inc. and DoCoMo  55
SupaSpot Inc Smart Sensors  55
Wearable Experiments and Brand Marketing  56
Wearable Life Sciences Antelope  57
Textronics NuMetrex  59
3rd Generation Technologies  60
AdvanPro Pressure Sensing Shoes  60
Tamicare 3D printed Wearables with Integrated Sensors  62
AiQ Smart Clothing Stainless Steel Yarns  64
Flex Printed Inks And Conductive Yarns  66
Sensing Tech Conductive Inks  67
EHO Textiles Body Motion Monitoring  68
Bebop Sensors Washable E-Ink Sensors  70
Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research Piezolectric Polymer
Sensors  71
CLIM8 GEAR Heated Textiles  74
VTT Smart Clothing Human Thermal Model  74
ATTACH (Adaptive Textiles Technology with Active Cooling and Heating) 76
Energy Storage and Generation  78
Intelligent Textiles Military Uniforms  78
BAE Systems Broadsword Spine  79
Stretchable Batteries  80
LG Chem Cable Batteries  81
Supercapacitors  83
Swinburne Graphene Supercapacitors  83
MIT Niobium Nanowire Supercapacitors  83
Energy Harvesting  86
Kinetic  86
StretchSense Energy Harvesting Kit  86
NASA Environmental Sensing Fibers  86
Solar  87
Powertextiles  88
Sphelar Power Corp Solar Textiles  88
Ohmatex and Powerweave  89
Fashion  89
1st Generation Technologies  92
Cute Circuit LED Couture  92
2nd Generation Technologies  94
Covestro Luminous Clothing  94
3rd Generation Technologies  96
The Unseen Temperature Sensitive Dyes  96
Entertainment  98
Wearable Experiments Marketing  98
Key Technologies 100
Circuitry  100
Conductive Inks for Fabrics  100
Conductive Ink For Printing On Stretchable Fabrics  100
Creative Materials Conductive Inks And Adhesives  100
Dupont Stretchable Electronic Inks  101
Aluminium Inks From Alink Co  101
Conductive Fibres  102
Circuitex Silver Coated Nylon  102
Textronics Yarns and Fibres  102
Novonic Elastic Conductive Yarn  103
Copper Coated Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) Fibres  103
Printed electronics  105
Covestro TPU Films for Flexible Circuits  105
Sensors  107
Electrical  107
Hitoe  107
Cocomi  108
Panasonic Polymer Resin  109
Cardiac Monitoring  110
Mechanical  113
Strain  113
Textile-Based Weft Knitted Strain Sensors  113
Chain Mail Fabric for Smart Textiles  113
Nano-Treatment for Conductive Fiber/Sensors 115
Piezoceramic materials  116
Graphene-Based Woven Fabric  117
Pressure Sensing  117
LG Innotek Flexible Textile Pressure Sensors  117
Hong Kong Polytechnic University Pressure Sensing Fibers  119
Conductive Polymer Composite Coatings  122
Printed Textile Sensors To Track Movement  125
Environment  127
Photochromic Textiles  127
Temperature  127
Sefar PowerSens  127
Gasses & Chemicals  127
Textile Gas Sensors  127
Energy  130
Storage  130
Graphene Supercapacitors  130
Niobium Nanowire Supercapacitors  130
Stretchy supercapacitors  132
Energy Generation  133
StretchSense Energy Harvesting Kit  133
Piezoelectric Or Thermoelectric Coated Fibres  134
Optical  137
Light Emitting  137
University of Manchester Electroluminescent Inks and Yarns 137
Polyera Wove  138
Companies Mentioned  141
List of Tables
Table 1 CAGR by application  22
Table 2 Value of market by application 2016-25 (millions USD)  24
Table 3 % market share by application  26
Table 4 CAGR 2016-25 by application  26
Table 5 Technology-Enabled Market Growth in Textile by Sector (2016-22) 28
Table 6 Value of nanomaterials by sector 2016-22 ($ Millions)  33
List of Figures
Figure 1 The 4th Industrial Revolution (World Economic Forum)  9
Figure 2 Block Diagram of typical MEMS digital output motion sensor: ultra
low-power high performance 3-axis “femto” accelerometer used in
fitness tracking devices.  11
Figure 3 Interior of Fitbit Flex device (from iFixit)  11
Figure 4 Internal layout of Fitbit Flex. Red is the main CPU, orange is the
BTLE chip, blue is a charger, yellow is the accelerometer (from iFixit)  11
Figure 5 Intel’s Curie processor stretches the definition of ‘wearable’  12
Figure 6 Typical Textile Based Wearable System Components  13
Figure 7 The Chromat Aeros Sports Bra “powered by Intel, inspired by wind, air and flight.”  14
Figure 8 The Evolution of Smart textiles  15
Figure 9 Goldwin’s C2fit IN-pulse sportswear using Toray’s Hitoe  16
Figure 10 Sensoglove reads grip pressure for golfers  16
Figure 11 Textile Based Wearables Growth 2016-25(USD Millions)  21
Figure 12 Total market for textile based wearables 2016-25 (USD Millions)  22
Figure 13 Health and Sports Market Size 2016-20 (USD Millions)  23
Figure 14 Health and Sports Market Size 2016-25 (USD Millions)  23
Figure 15 Critical steps for obtaining FDA medical device approval  25
Figure 16 Market split between wellbeing and medical 2016-25  26
Figure 17 Current World Textile Market by Sector (2016)  27
Figure 18 The Global Textile Market By Sector ($ Millions)  27
Figure 19 Compound Annual Growth Rates (CAGR) by Sector (2016-25)  28
Figure 20 The Global Textile Market in 2022  29
Figure 21 The Global Textile Market in 2025  30
Figure 22 Textile Market Evolution (2012-2025)  30
Figure 23 Total Value of Nanomaterials in Textiles 2012-2022 ($ Millions)  31
Figure 24 Value of Nanomaterials in Textiles by Sector 2016-2025 ($ Millions) 32
Figure 25 Adidas miCoach Connect Heart Rate Monitor  36
Figure 26 Sensoria’s Hear[t] Rate Monitoring Garments . 37
Figure 27 Flexible components used in Google’s Project Jacquard  40
Figure 28 Google and Levi’s Smart Jacket  41
Figure 29 Embedded electronics Google’s Project Jacquard  42
Figure 30 Samsung’s WELT ‘smart’ belt  43
Figure 31 Samsung Body Compass at CES16  44
Figure 32 Lumo Run washable motion sensor  45
Figure 33 OMSignal’s Smart Bra  49
Figure 34 PoloTech Shirt from Ralph Lauren  50
Figure 35 Hexoskin Data Acquisition and Processing  51
Figure 36 Peak+™ Hear[t] Rate Monitoring Garment  52
Figure 37 StretchSense CEO Ben O’Brien, with a fabric stretch sensor  53
Figure 38 C3fit Pulse from Goldwin Inc  55
Figure 39 The Antelope Tank-Top  58
Figure 40 Sportswear with integrated sensors from Textronix  60
Figure 41 AdvanPro’s pressure sensing insoles  61
Figure 42 AdvanPro’s pressure sensing textile  62
Figure 43 Tamicare 3D Printing Sensors and Apparel  63
Figure 44 Smart clothing using stainless steel yarns and textile sensors from AiQ  65
Figure 45 EHO Smart Sock  69
Figure 46 BeBop Smart Car Seat Sensor  71
Figure 47 Non-transparent printed sensors from Fraunhofer ISC  73
Figure 48 Clim8 Intelligent Heat Regulating Shirt  74
Figure 49 Temperature regulating smart fabric printed at UC San Diego  76
Figure 50 Intelligent Textiles Ltd smart uniform  79
Figure 51 BAE Systems Broadsword Spine  80
Figure 52 LG Chem cable-shaped lithium-ion battery powers an LED display even when twisted and strained  81
Figure 53 Supercapacitor yarn made of niobium nanowires  84
Figure 54 Sphelar Textile  89
Figure 55 Sphelar Textile Solar Cells  89
Figure 56 Katy Perry wears Cute Circuit in 2010  91
Figure 57 Cute Circuit K Dress  93
Figure 58 MAKEFASHION runway at the Brother’s “Back to Business” conference, Nashville 2016  94
Figure 59 Covestro material with LEDs are positioned on formable films made from thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU).  95
Figure 60 Unseen headpiece, made of 4000 conductive Swarovski stones, changes color to correspond with localized brain activity  96
Figure 61 Eighthsense a coded couture piece.  97
Figure 62 Durex Fundawear  98
Figure 63 Printed fabric sensors from the University of Tokyo  100
Figure 64 Tony Kanaan’s shirt with electrically conductive nano-fibers  107
Figure 65 Panasonic stretchable resin technology  109
Figure 66 Nanoflex moniroring system  111
Figure 67 Knitted strain sensors  113
Figure 68 Chain Mail Fabric for Smart Textiles  114
Figure 69 Electroplated Fabric  115
Figure 70 LG Innotek flexible textile pressure sensors  118
Figure 71 Smart Footwear installed with fabric sensors. (Credit: Image courtesy of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University)  120
Figure 72 SOFTCEPTOR™ textile strain sensors  122
Figure 73 conductive polymer composite coating for pressure sensing  123
Figure 74 Fraunhofer ISC_ printed sensor  125
Figure 75 The graphene-coated yarn sensor. (Image: ETRI)  128
Figure 76 Supercapacitor yarn made of niobium nanowires  131
Figure 77 StretchSense Energy Harvesting Kit  134
Figure 78 Energy harvesting textiles at the University of Southampton  135
Figure 79 Polyera Wove Flexible Screen  139

If you compare that with the table of contents for the May 2016 report in my June 2, 2016 posting, you can see the difference.

Here’s one last tidbit, a Sept. 15, 2016 news item on highlights another wearable technology report,

Wearable tech, which was seeing sizzling sales growth a year ago [2015], is cooling this year amid consumer hesitation over new devices, a survey showed Thursday [Sept. 15, 2016].

The research firm IDC said it expects global sales of wearables to grow some 29.4 percent to some 103 million units in 2016.

That follows 171 percent growth in 2015, fueled by the launch of the Apple Watch and a variety of fitness bands.

“It is increasingly becoming more obvious that consumers are not willing to deal with technical pain points that have to date been associated with many wearable devices,” said IDC analyst Ryan Reith.

So-called basic wearables—including fitness bands and other devices that do not run third party applications—will make up the lion’s share of the market with some 80.7 million units shipped this year, according to IDC.

According to IDC, it seems that the short term does not promise the explosive growth of the previous year but that new generations of wearable technology, according to both IDC and Cientifica, offer considerable promise for the market.

Ministry’s new women’s shirt: a technical marvel

It seems there’s another entry into the textile business, a women’s dress shirt made of a technical textile. A Sept. 13, 2016 article by Elizabeth Segran for Fast Company describes this ‘miracle’ piece of apparel,

There are few items of clothing professional women love more than a well-draped silk shirt. They’re the equivalent of men’s well-tailored Oxford shirts: classic, elegant, and versatile enough to look appropriate in almost any business context. But they’re also difficult to maintain: Silk wrinkles easily, doesn’t absorb perspiration, and needs to be dry cleaned.

Boston-based fashion brand Ministry (formerly Ministry of Supply) has heard our lament. …

Ministry gathered …  feedback and spent two years creating a high-performance women’s work shirt as part of its debut womenswear collection, launching today [Sept. 13, 2016]. Until now, the five-year-old company has been focused on creating menswear made with cutting-edge new textiles, but cofounder Gihan Amarasiriwardena explains that when they were developing the womenswear collection, they didn’t just remake their men’s garments in women’s sizes.

Here’s an image of the shirt in black,

[downloaded from]

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Segran’s article mostly extolls its benefits but there is a little technical information,

Their brand-new, aptly named Easier Than Silk Shirt looks and feels like silk, but is actually made from a Japanese technical fabric (i.e., a textile engineered to perform functions, like protecting the wearer from extremely high temperatures). It drapes nicely, wicks moisture, is wrinkle-resistant, and can be thrown in a regular washer and dryer. I tested the shirt on a typical Monday. This meant getting dressed at 7 a.m., taking my baby to a health checkup—where she proceeded to drool on me—wiping myself off for a lunch interview, then heading to a coffee shop to write for several hours before going to a book launch party. By the time I got home that evening and looked in the mirror, the shirt was somehow crease-free and there were no moisture blotches in sight.

When Ministry claims to “engineer a shirt,” it does not mean this in a metaphorical sense. The by [sic] three MIT students, Amarasiriwardena, Aman Advani, and Kit Hickey; the former two were trained as engineers. Every aspect of Ministry’s design process incorporates scientific thinking, from introducing NASA temperature-regulating textile technology into dress shirts to using equipment to test each garment before it hits the market. The Ministry headquarters in Boston is full of machines, including one that pulls at fabric to see how well it is able to recover from being stretched, and computer systems that offer 3D modeling of the human form.

I wonder if Teijin (first mentioned here in a July 19, 2010 posting about their now defunct ‘morphotex’ [based on the nanostructures on a Morpho butterfly’s wing] fabric) is the Japanese company producing Ministry’s technical textile. Ministry’s company website is less focused on the technology than on the retail aspect of their business so if the technical information is there, it’s not immediately obvious.

Cooling the skin with plastic clothing

Rather that cooling or heating an entire room, why not cool or heat the person? Engineers at Stanford University (California, US) have developed a material that helps with half of that premise: cooling. From a Sept. 1, 2016 news item on ScienceDaily,

Stanford engineers have developed a low-cost, plastic-based textile that, if woven into clothing, could cool your body far more efficiently than is possible with the natural or synthetic fabrics in clothes we wear today.

Describing their work in Science, the researchers suggest that this new family of fabrics could become the basis for garments that keep people cool in hot climates without air conditioning.

“If you can cool the person rather than the building where they work or live, that will save energy,” said Yi Cui, an associate professor of materials science and engineering and of photon science at Stanford.

A Sept. 1, 2016 Stanford University news release (also on EurekAlert) by Tom Abate, which originated the news item, further explains the information in the video,

This new material works by allowing the body to discharge heat in two ways that would make the wearer feel nearly 4 degrees Fahrenheit cooler than if they wore cotton clothing.

The material cools by letting perspiration evaporate through the material, something ordinary fabrics already do. But the Stanford material provides a second, revolutionary cooling mechanism: allowing heat that the body emits as infrared radiation to pass through the plastic textile.

All objects, including our bodies, throw off heat in the form of infrared radiation, an invisible and benign wavelength of light. Blankets warm us by trapping infrared heat emissions close to the body. This thermal radiation escaping from our bodies is what makes us visible in the dark through night-vision goggles.

“Forty to 60 percent of our body heat is dissipated as infrared radiation when we are sitting in an office,” said Shanhui Fan, a professor of electrical engineering who specializes in photonics, which is the study of visible and invisible light. “But until now there has been little or no research on designing the thermal radiation characteristics of textiles.”

Super-powered kitchen wrap

To develop their cooling textile, the Stanford researchers blended nanotechnology, photonics and chemistry to give polyethylene – the clear, clingy plastic we use as kitchen wrap – a number of characteristics desirable in clothing material: It allows thermal radiation, air and water vapor to pass right through, and it is opaque to visible light.

The easiest attribute was allowing infrared radiation to pass through the material, because this is a characteristic of ordinary polyethylene food wrap. Of course, kitchen plastic is impervious to water and is see-through as well, rendering it useless as clothing.

The Stanford researchers tackled these deficiencies one at a time.

First, they found a variant of polyethylene commonly used in battery making that has a specific nanostructure that is opaque to visible light yet is transparent to infrared radiation, which could let body heat escape. This provided a base material that was opaque to visible light for the sake of modesty but thermally transparent for purposes of energy efficiency.

They then modified the industrial polyethylene by treating it with benign chemicals to enable water vapor molecules to evaporate through nanopores in the plastic, said postdoctoral scholar and team member Po-Chun Hsu, allowing the plastic to breathe like a natural fiber.

Making clothes

That success gave the researchers a single-sheet material that met their three basic criteria for a cooling fabric. To make this thin material more fabric-like, they created a three-ply version: two sheets of treated polyethylene separated by a cotton mesh for strength and thickness.

To test the cooling potential of their three-ply construct versus a cotton fabric of comparable thickness, they placed a small swatch of each material on a surface that was as warm as bare skin and measured how much heat each material trapped.

“Wearing anything traps some heat and makes the skin warmer,” Fan said. “If dissipating thermal radiation were our only concern, then it would be best to wear nothing.”

The comparison showed that the cotton fabric made the skin surface 3.6 F warmer than their cooling textile. The researchers said this difference means that a person dressed in their new material might feel less inclined to turn on a fan or air conditioner.

The researchers are continuing their work on several fronts, including adding more colors, textures and cloth-like characteristics to their material. Adapting a material already mass produced for the battery industry could make it easier to create products.

“If you want to make a textile, you have to be able to make huge volumes inexpensively,” Cui said.

Fan believes that this research opens up new avenues of inquiry to cool or heat things, passively, without the use of outside energy, by tuning materials to dissipate or trap infrared radiation.

“In hindsight, some of what we’ve done looks very simple, but it’s because few have really been looking at engineering the radiation characteristics of textiles,” he said.

Dexter Johnson (Nanoclast blog on the IEEE [Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers] website) has written a Sept. 2, 2016 posting where he provides more technical detail about this work,

The nanoPE [nanoporous polyethylene] material is able to achieve this release of the IR heat because of the size of the interconnected pores. The pores can range in size from 50 to 1000 nanometers. They’re therefore comparable in size to wavelengths of visible light, which allows the material to scatter that light. However, because the pores are much smaller than the wavelength of infrared light, the nanoPE is transparent to the IR.

It is this combination of blocking visible light and allowing IR to pass through that distinguishes the nanoPE material from regular polyethylene, which allows similar amounts of IR to pass through, but can only block 20 percent of the visible light compared to nanoPE’s 99 percent opacity.

The Stanford researchers were also able to improve on the water wicking capability of the nanoPE material by using a microneedle punching technique and coating the material with a water-repelling agent. The result is that perspiration can evaporate through the material unlike with regular polyethylene.

For those who wish to further pursue their interest, Dexter has a lively writing style and he provides more detail and insight in his posting.

Here’s a link to and a citation for the paper,

Radiative human body cooling by nanoporous polyethylene textile by Po-Chun Hsu, Alex Y. Song, Peter B. Catrysse, Chong Liu, Yucan Peng, Jin Xie, Shanhui Fan, Yi Cui. Science  02 Sep 2016: Vol. 353, Issue 6303, pp. 1019-1023 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf5471

This paper is open access.

Squeezing out ‘polymer opals’ for smart clothing and more

Researchers at the University of Cambridge have developed a technology for producing ‘polymer opals’ on industrial scales according to a June 3, 2016 news item on Nanowerk (Note: A link has been removed),

Using a new method called Bend-Induced-Oscillatory-Shearing (BIOS), the researchers are now able to produce hundreds of metres of these materials, known as ‘polymer opals’, on a roll-to-roll process. The results are reported in the journal Nature Communications (“Large-scale ordering of nanoparticles using viscoelastic shear processing”).

A June 3, 2016 University of Cambridge press release (also on EurekAlert), which originated the news item, provides more detail (Note: Links have been removed),

Researchers have devised a new method for stacking microscopic marbles into regular layers, producing intriguing materials which scatter light into intense colours, and which change colour when twisted or stretched.

Some of the brightest colours in nature can be found in opal gemstones, butterfly wings and beetles. These materials get their colour not from dyes or pigments, but from the systematically-ordered microstructures they contain.

The team behind the current research, based at Cambridge’s Cavendish Laboratory, have been working on methods of artificially recreating this ‘structural colour’ for several years, but to date, it has been difficult to make these materials using techniques that are cheap enough to allow their widespread use.

In order to make the polymer opals, the team starts by growing vats of transparent plastic nano-spheres. Each tiny sphere is solid in the middle but sticky on the outside. The spheres are then dried out into a congealed mass. By bending sheets containing a sandwich of these spheres around successive rollers the balls are magically forced into perfectly arranged stacks, by which stage they have intense colour.

By changing the sizes of the starting nano-spheres, different colours (or wavelengths) of light are reflected. And since the material has a rubber-like consistency, when it is twisted and stretched, the spacing between the spheres changes, causing the material to change colour. When stretched, the material shifts into the blue range of the spectrum, and when compressed, the colour shifts towards red. When released, the material returns to its original colour. Such chameleon materials could find their way into colour-changing wallpapers, or building coatings that reflect away infrared thermal radiation.

I always like it when there are quotes which seem spontaneous (from the press release),

“Finding a way to coax objects a billionth of a metre across into perfect formation over kilometre scales is a miracle [emphasis mine],” said Professor Jeremy Baumberg, the paper’s senior author. “But spheres are only the first step, as it should be applicable to more complex architectures on tiny scales.”

In order to make polymer opals in large quantities, the team first needed to understand their internal structure so that it could be replicated. Using a variety of techniques, including electron microscopy, x-ray scattering, rheology and optical spectroscopy, the researchers were able to see the three-dimensional position of the spheres within the material, measure how the spheres slide past each other, and how the colours change.

“It’s wonderful [emphasis mine] to finally understand the secrets of these attractive films,” said PhD student Qibin Zhao, the paper’s lead author.

There’s also the commercialization aspect to this work (from the press release),

Cambridge Enterprise, the University’s commercialisation arm which is helping to commercialise the material, has been contacted by more than 100 companies interested in using polymer opals, and a new spin-out Phomera Technologies has been founded. Phomera will look at ways of scaling up production of polymer opals, as well as selling the material to potential buyers. Possible applications the company is considering include coatings for buildings to reflect heat, smart clothing and footwear, or for banknote security [emphasis mine] and packaging applications.

There is a Canadian company already selling its anti-counterfeiting (banknote security) bioinspired technology. It’s called Opalux and it’s not the only bioinspired anti-counterfeiting Canadian technology company, there’s also NanoTech Security which takes its inspiration from a butterfly (Blue Morpho) wing.

Getting back to Cambridge, here’s a link to and a citation for the research team’s paper,

Large-scale ordering of nanoparticles using viscoelastic shear processing by Qibin Zhao, Chris E. Finlayson, David R. E. Snoswell, Andrew Haines, Christian Schäfer, Peter Spahn, Goetz P. Hellmann, Andrei V. Petukhov, Lars Herrmann, Pierre Burdet, Paul A. Midgley, Simon Butler, Malcolm Mackley, Qixin Guo, & Jeremy J. Baumberg. Nature Communications 7, Article number: 11661  doi:10.1038/ncomms11661 Published 03 June 2016

This paper is open access.

There is a video demonstrating the stretchability of their ‘polymer opal’ film

It was posted on YouTube three years ago when the researchers were first successful. It’s nice to see they’ve been successful at getting the technology to the commercialization stage.

Cientifica’s “Wearables, Smart Textiles and Nanotechnology Applications Technologies and Markets” report

It’s been a long time since I’ve received notice of a report from Cientifica Research and I’m glad to see another one. This is titled, Wearables, Smart Textiles and Nanotechnologies and Markets, and has just been published according to the May 26,  2016 Cientifica announcement received by email.

Here’s more from the report’s order page on the Cientifica site,

Wearables, Smart Textiles and Nanotechnology: Applications, Technologies and Markets

Price GBP 1995 / USD 2995

The past few years have seen the introduction of a number of wearable technologies, from fitness trackers to “smart watches” but with the increasing use of smart textiles wearables are set to become ‘disappearables’ as the devices merge with textiles.

The textile industry will experience a growing demand for high-tech materials driven largely by both technical textiles and the increasing integration of smart textiles to create wearable devices based on sensors.  This will enable the transition of the wearable market away from one dominated by discrete hardware based on MEMS accelerometers and smartphones. Unlike today’s ‘wearables’ tomorrow’s devices will be fully integrated into the the garment through the use of conductive fibres, multilayer 3D printed structures and two dimensional materials such as graphene.

Largely driven by the use of nanotechnologies, this sector will be one of the largest end users of nano- and two dimensional materials such as graphene, with wearable devices accounting for over half the demand by 2022. Products utilizing two dimensional materials such as graphene inks will be integral to the growth of wearables, representing a multi-billion dollar opportunity by 2022.

This represents significant opportunities for both existing smart textiles companies and new entrants to create and grow niche markets in sectors currently dominated by hardware manufacturers such Apple and Samsung.

The market for wearables using smart textiles is forecast to grow at a CAGR [compound annual growth rate] of 132% between 2016 and 2022 representing a $70 billion market. Largely driven by the use of nanotechnologies, this sector has the potential to be one of the largest end users of nano and two dimensional materials such as graphene, with wearable devices accounting for over half the demand by 2022.

“Wearables, Smart Textiles and Nanotechnologies: Applications, Technologies and Markets” looks at the technologies involved from antibacterial silver nanoparticles to electrospun graphene fibers, the companies applying them, and the impact on sectors including wearables, apparel, home, military, technical, and medical textiles.

This report is based on an extensive research study of the smart textile market backed with over a decade of experience in identifying, predicting and sizing markets for nanotechnologies and smart textiles. Detailed market figures are given from 2016-2022, along with an analysis of the key opportunities, and illustrated with 120 figures and 15 tables.

I always love to view the table of contents (from the report’s order page),

Table of Contents      

Executive Summary  

Why Wearable Technologies Need More than Silicon + Software

The Solution Is in Your Closet

The Shift To Higher Value Textiles

Nanomaterials Add Functionality and Value


Objectives of the Report

World Textiles and Clothing

Overview of Nanotechnology Applications in the EU Textile Industry

Overview of Nanotechnology Applications in the US Textile Industry

Overview of Nanotechnology Applications in the Chinese Textile Industry

Overview of Nanotechnology Applications in the Indian Textile Industry

Overview of Nanotechnology Applications in the Japanese Textile Industry

Overview of Nanotechnology Applications in the Korean Textile Industry

Textiles in the Rest of the World

Macro and Micro Value Chain of Textiles Industry

Common Textiles Industry Classifications

End Markets and Value Chain Actors

Why Textiles Adopt Nanotechnologies        

Nanotechnology in Textiles

Examples of Nanotechnology in Textiles

Nanotechnology in Some Textile-related Categories

Technical & Smart Textiles

Multifunctional Textiles

High Performance Textiles

Smart/Intelligent Textiles

Nanotechnology Hype

Current Applications of Nanotechnology in Textile Production       

Nanotechnology in Fibers and Yarns

Nano-Structured Composite Fibers

Nanotechnology in Textile Finishing, Dyeing and Coating

Nanotechnology In Textile Printing

Green Technology—Nanotechnology In Textile Production Energy Saving

Electronic Textiles and Wearables   

Nanotechnology in Electronic Textiles


Markets and Impacts

Conductive Materials

Carbon Nanotube Composite Conductive Fibers

Carbon Nanotube Yarns

Nano-Treatment for Conductive Fiber/Sensors

Textile-Based Wearable Electronics

Conductive Coatings On Fibers For Electronic Textiles

Stretchable  Electronics

Memory-Storing Fiber

Transistor Cotton for Smart Clothing

Embedding Transparent, Flexible Graphene Electrodes Into Fibers

Organic Electronic Fibers

‘Temperature Regulating Smart Fabric’

Digital System Built Directly on a Fiber


Shirt Button Sensors

An integrated textile heart monitoring solution

OmSignal’s  Smart Bra

Printed sensors to track movement

Textile Gas Sensors

Smart Seats To Curtail Fatigued Driving.

Wireless Brain and Heart Monitors

Chain Mail Fabric for Smart Textiles

Graphene-Based Woven Fabric

Anti-Counterfeiting and Drug Delivery Nanofiber

Batteries and Energy Storage

Flexible Batteries

Cable Batteries

Flexible Supercapacitors

Energy Harvesting Textiles

Light Emitting Textiles  

Data Transmission 

Future and Challenges of Electronic Textiles and Wearables

Market Forecast

Smart Textiles, Nanotechnology and Apparel          

Nano-Antibacterial Clothing Textiles

Nanosilver Safety Concerns

UV/Sun/Radiation Protective

Hassle-free Clothing: Stain/Oil/Water Repellence, Anti-Static, Anti-Wrinkle


Comfort Issues: Perspiration Control, Moisture Management

Creative Appearance and Scent for High Street Fashions

Nanobarcodes for Clothing Combats Counterfeiting

High Strength, Abrasion-Resistant Fabric Using Carbon Nanotube

Nanotechnology For Home Laundry

Current Adopters of Nanotechnology in Clothing/Apparel Textiles

Products and Markets

Market Forecast

Nanotechnology in Home Textiles   

Summary of Nanotechnology Applications in Home Textiles

Current Applications of Nanotechnology in Home Textiles

Current Adopters of Nanotechnology in Home Textiles

Products and Markets

Costs and Benefits

Market Forecast

Nanotechnology Applications in Military/Defence Textiles

Summary of Nanotechnology Applications in Military/Defence Textiles

Military Textiles

Current Applications of Nanotechnology in Military/Defence Textiles

Current Adopters of Nanotechnology in Military/Defence Textiles

Light Weight, Multifunctional Nanostructured Fibers and Materials

Costs and Benefits

Market Forecast

Nanotechnology Applications in Medical Textiles   

Summary of Nanotechnology Applications in Medical Textiles

Current Applications of Nanotechnology in Medical Textiles

Current Adopters of Nanotechnology in Medical Textiles

Products and Markets

Costs and Benefits

Market Forecast

Nanotechnology Applications in Sports/Outdoor Textiles   

Summary of Nanotechnology Applications in Sports/Outdoor Textiles

Current Applications of Nanotechnology in Sports/Outdoor Textiles

Current Adopters of Nanotechnology in Sports/Outdoor Textiles

Products and Markets

Costs and Benefits

Market Forecast

Nanotechnology Applications in Technical Textiles 

Summary of Nanotechnology Applications in Technical and smart textiles

Current Applications of Nanotechnology in Technical Textiles

Current Adopters of Nanotechnology in Technical and smart textiles

Products and Markets

Costs and Benefits

Market Forecast

APPENDIX I: Companies/Research Institutes Applying Nanotechnologies to the Textile Industry

Companies Working on Nanofiber Applications

Companies Working on Nanofabric Applications

Companies Working on Nano Finishing, Coating, Dyeing and Printing Applications

Companies Working on Green Nanotechnology In Textile Production Energy Saving Applications

Companies Working on E-textile Applications

Companies Working on Nano Applications in Clothing/Apparel Textiles

Companies Working on Nano Applications in Home Textiles

Companies Working on Nano Applications in Sports/Outdoor Textile

Companies Working on Nano Applications in Military/Defence Textiles

Companies Working on Nano Applications in Technical Textiles

APPENDIX II: Selected Company Profiles     

APPENDIX III: Companies Mentioned in This Report 

The report’s order page has a form you can fill out to get more information but, as far as I can tell, there is no purchase button or link to a shopping cart for purchase.


Recently, there was an email in my inbox touting a Canadian-based company’s underclothing made with the founder’s Sweat-Secret fabric technology (I have not been able to find any details about the technology). As this has some of the qualities being claimed for the nanotechnology-enabled textiles described in the report and the name for the company amuses me, Noody Patooty, I’m including it in this posting (from the homepage),

Organic Bamboo Fabric
The soft, breathable and thermoregulation benefits of organic bamboo fabric keep you comfortable throughout all your busy days.

Sweat-Secret™ Technology
The high performance fabric in the underarm wicks day-to-day sweat and moisture from the body preventing sweat and odour stains.

Made in Canada
From fabric to finished garment our entire collection is made in Canada using sustainable and ethical manufacturing processes.

This is not an endorsement of the Noody Patooty undershirts. I’ve never tried one.

As for the report, Tim Harper who founded Cientifica Research has in my experience always been knowledgeable and well-informed (although I don’t always agree with him). Presumably, he’s still with the company but I’m not entirely certain.

Getting too hot? Strap on your personal cooling unit

Individual cooling units for firefighters, foundry workers, and others working in hot conditions are still in the future but if Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) researchers have their way that future is a lot closer than it was. From an April 29, 2016 news item on Nanotechnology Now,

Firefighters entering burning buildings, athletes competing in the broiling sun and workers in foundries may eventually be able to carry their own, lightweight cooling units with them, thanks to a nanowire array that cools, according to Penn State materials researchers.

An April 28, 2016 Penn State news release by A’ndrea Elyse Messer, which originated the news item, describes some of the concepts and details some of the technology,

“Most electrocaloric ceramic materials contain lead,” said Qing Wang, professor of materials science and engineering. “We try not to use lead. Conventional cooling systems use coolants that can be environmentally problematic as well. Our nanowire array can cool without these problems.”

Electrocaloric materials are nanostructured materials that show a reversible temperature change under an applied electric field. Previously available electrocaloric materials were single crystals, bulk ceramics or ceramic thin films that could cool, but are limited because they are rigid, fragile and have poor processability. Ferroelectric polymers also can cool, but the electric field needed to induce cooling is above the safety limit for humans.

Wang and his team looked at creating a nanowire material that was flexible, easily manufactured and environmentally friendly and could cool with an electric field safe for human use. Such a material might one day be incorporated into firefighting gear, athletic uniforms or other wearables. …

Their vertically aligned ferroelectric barium strontium titanate nanowire array can cool about 5.5 degrees Fahrenheit using 36 volts, an electric field level safe for humans. A 500 gram battery pack about the size of an IPad could power the material for about two hours.

The researchers grow the material in two stages. First, titanium dioxide nanowires are grown on fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass. The researchers use a template so all the nanowires grow perpendicular to the glass’ surface and to the same height. Then the researchers infuse barium and strontium ions into the titanium dioxide nanowires.

The researchers apply a nanosheet of silver to the array to serve as an electrode.

They can move this nanowire forest from the glass substrate to any substrate they want — including clothing fabric — using a sticky tape.

“This low voltage is good enough for modest exercise and the material is flexible,” said Wang. “Now we need to design a system that can cool a person and remove the heat generated in cooling from the immediate area.”

This solid state personal cooling system may one day become the norm because it does not require regeneration of coolants with ozone depletion and global warming potentials and could be lightweight and flexible.

Here’s a link to and a citation for the paper,

Toward Wearable Cooling Devices: Highly Flexible Electrocaloric Ba0.67Sr0.33TiO3 Nanowire Arrays by Guangzu Zhang, Xiaoshan Zhang, Houbing Huang, Jianjun Wang, Qi Li, Long-Qing Chen, and Qing Wang. Advanced Materials DOI: 10.1002/adma.201506118 Article first published online: 27 APR 2016

© 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

This paper is behind a paywall.

One final comment, I’m trying to imagine a sport where an athlete would willingly wear any material that adds weight. Isn’t an athlete’s objective is to have lightweight clothing and footwear so nothing impedes performance?

A dress that lights up according to reactions on Twitter

I don’t usually have an opportunity to write about red carpet events but the recent Met Gala, also known as the Costume Institute Gala and the Met Ball, which took place on the evening of May 2, 2016 in New York, featured a ‘cognitive’ dress. Here’s more from a May 2, 2016 article by Emma Spedding for The Telegraph (UK),

“Tech white tie” was the dress code for last night’s Met Gala, inspired by the theme of this year’s Met fashion exhibition, ‘Manus x Machina: Fashion in the Age of Technology’. While many of the a-list attendees interpreted this to mean ‘silver sequins’, several rose to the challenge with beautiful, future-gazing gowns which give a glimpse of how our clothes might behave in the future.

Supermodel Karolina Kurkova wore a ‘cognitive’ Marchesa gown that was created in collaboration with technology company IBM. The two companies came together following a survey conducted by IBM which found that Marchesa was one of the favourite designers of its employees. The dress is created using a conductive fabric chosen from 40,000 options and embedded with 150 LED lights which change colour in reaction to the sentiments of Kurkova’s Twitter followers.

A May 2, 2016 article by Rose Pastore for Fast Company provides a little more technical detail and some insight into why Marchesa partnered with IBM,

At the Met Gala in Manhattan tonight [May 2, 2016], one model will be wearing a “cognitive dress”: A gown, designed by fashion house Marchesa, that will shift in color based on input from IBM’s Watson supercomputer. The dress features gauzy white roses, each embedded with an LED that will display different colors depending on the general sentiment of tweets about the Met Gala. The algorithm powering the dress relies on Watson Color Theory, which links emotions to colors, and on the Watson Tone Analyzer, a service that can detect emotion in text.

In addition to the color-changing cognitive dress, Marchesa designers are using Watson to get new color palette ideas. The designers choose from a list of emotions and concepts—things like romance, excitement, and power—and Watson recommends a palette of colors it associates with those sentiments.

An April 29, 2016 posting by Ann Rubin for IBM’s Think blog discusses the history of technology/art partnerships and provides more technical detail (yes!) about this one,

Throughout history, we’ve seen traces of technology enabling humans to create – from Da Vinci’s use of the camera obscura to Caravaggio’s work with mirrors and lenses. Today, cognitive systems like Watson are giving artists, designers and creative minds the tools to make sense of the world in ground-breaking ways, opening up new avenues for humans to approach creative thinking.

The dress’ cognitive creation relies on a mix of Watson APIs, cognitive tools from IBM Research, solutions from Watson developer partner Inno360 and the creative vision from the Marchesa design team. In advance of it making its exciting debut on the red carpet, we’d like to take you on the journey of how man and machine collaborated to create this special dress.

Rooted in the belief that color and images can indicate moods and send messages, Marchesa first selected five key human emotions – joy, passion, excitement, encouragement and curiosity – that they wanted the dress to convey. IBM Research then fed this data into the cognitive color design tool, a groundbreaking project out of IBM Research-Yorktown that understands the psychological effects of colors, the interrelationships between emotions, and image aesthetics.

This process also involved feeding Watson hundreds of images associated with Marchesa dresses in order to understand and learn the brand’s color palette. Ultimately, Watson was able to suggest color palettes that were in line with Marchesa’s brand and the identified emotions, which will come to life on the dress during the Met Gala.

Once the colors were finalized, Marchesa turned to IBM partner Inno360 to source a fabric for their creation. Using Inno360’s R&D platform – powered by a combination of seven Watson services – the team searched more than 40,000 sources for fabric information, narrowing down to 150 sources of the most useful options to consider for the dress.

From this selection, Inno360 worked in partnership with IBM Research-Almaden to identify printed and woven textiles that would respond well to the LED technology needed to execute the final part of the collaboration. Inno360 was then able to deliver 35 unique fabric recommendations based on a variety of criteria important to Marchesa, like weight, luminosity, and flexibility. From there, Marchesa weighed the benefits of different material compositions, weights and qualities to select the final fabric that suited the criteria for their dress and remained true to their brand.

Here’s what the dress looks like,

Courtesy of Marchesa Facebook page {

Courtesy of Marchesa Facebook page {

Watson is an artificial intelligence program,which I have written about a few times but I think this Feb. 28, 2011 posting (scroll down about 50% of the way), which mentions Watson, product placement, Jeopardy (tv quiz show), and medical diagnoses seems the most à propos given IBM’s latest product placement at the Met Gala.

Not the only ‘tech’ dress

There was at least one other ‘tech’ dress at the 2016 Met Gala, this one designed by Zac Posen and worn by Claire Danes. It did not receive a stellar review in a May 3, 2016 posting by Elaine Lui on,

People are losing their goddamn minds over this dress, by Zac Posen. Because it lights up.

It’s bullsh-t.


It’s Cinderella with a lamp shoved underneath her skirt.

Here’s a video of Danes and her dress at the Met Gala,

A Sept. 10, 2015 news item in People magazine indicates that Posen’s a different version of a ‘tech’ dress was a collaboration with Google (Note: Links have been removed),

Designer Zac Posen lit up his 2015 New York Fashion Week kickoff show on Tuesday by debuting a gorgeous and tech-savvy coded LED dress that blinked in different, dazzling pre-programmed patterns down the runway.

In coordination with Google’s non-profit organization, Made with Code, which inspires girls to pursue careers in tech coding, Posen teamed up with 30 girls (all between the ages of 13 and 18), who attended the show, to introduce the flashy dress — which was designed by Posen and coded by the young women.

“This is the future of the industry: mixing craft, fashion and technology,” the 34-year-old designer told PEOPLE. “There’s a discrepancy in the coding field, hardly any women are at the forefront, and that’s a real shame. If we can entice young women through the allure of fashion, to get them learning this language, why not?”


Through a micro controller, the gown displays coded patterns in 500 LED lights that are set to match the blues and yellows of Posen’s new collection. The circuit was designed and physically built into Posen’s dress fabric by 22-year-old up-and-coming fashion designer and computer science enthusiast, Maddy Maxey, who tells PEOPLE she was nervous watching Rocha [model Coco Rocha] make her way down the catwalk.

“It’s exactly as if she was carrying a microwave down the runway,” Maxey said. “It’s an entire circuit on a textile, so if one connection had come lose, the dress wouldn’t have worked. But, it did! And it was so deeply rewarding.”

Other ‘tech’ dresses

Back in 2009 I attended that year’s International Symposium on Electronic Arts and heard Clive van Heerden of Royal Philips Electronics talk about a number of innovative concepts including a ‘mood’ dress that would reveal the wearer’s emotions to whomever should glance their way. It was not a popular concept especially not in Japan where it was first tested.

The symposium also featured Maurits Waldemeyer who worked with fashion designer Chalayan Hussein and LED dresses and dresses that changed shape as the models went down the runway.

In 2010 there was a flurry of media interest in mood changing ‘smart’ clothes designed by researchers at Concordia University (Barbara Layne, Canada) and Goldsmiths College (Janis Jefferies, UK). Here’s more from a June 4, 2010 BBC news online item,

The clothes are connected to a database that analyses the data to work out a person’s emotional state.

Media, including songs, words and images, are then piped to the display and speakers in the clothes to calm a wearer or offer support.

Created as part of an artistic project called Wearable Absence the clothes are made from textiles woven with different sorts of wireless sensors. These can track a wide variety of tell-tale biological markers including temperature, heart rate, breathing and galvanic skin response.

Final comments

I don’t have anything grand to say. It is interesting to see the progression of ‘tech’ dresses from avant garde designers and academics to haute couture.

3D printed clothing

A seamless garment or article of footwear would minimize skin irritation for those of us not able to afford custom couture and an April 19, 2016 news item on ScienceDaily offers hope in an announcement of efforts by a team of UK scientists to change the textile industry’s approach to garment and footwear construction,

Loughborough University has teamed up with global textile and garment manufacturer the Yeh Group, to embark on landmark work in 3D textile printing that could revolutionise how clothes and footwear are made.

Personalised 3D printed fashion — manufactured within 24 hours — is the end goal of a new project led by Loughborough University that’s set to change the way we shop for clothes.

An April 18, 2016 Loughborough University press release, which originated the news item, describes the project (Note: Links have been removed),

Dr Guy Bingham, Senior Lecturer in Product and Industrial Design, has teamed up with global textile and garment manufacturer the Yeh Group, to embark on landmark work in 3D textile printing that could revolutionise how clothes and footwear are made.

The 18-month project[1], known as 3D Fashion, will see Dr Bingham – a world leader in his field – produce 3D wearable, full size, Additive Manufacturing (AM) textile garments and footwear – with design input from a major fashion house.

Advancements in AM textiles have made it possible to produce 3D printed garments directly from raw material, such as polymer, in a single manufacturing operation. This technology not only has the potential to reduce waste, labour costs and CO2e, but can modernise clothing production by encouraging localised manufacturing and production.

Currently, garment manufacture generates 1.8 million tonnes of waste material – equivalent to 70kg or 100 pairs of jeans per UK household, with 6.3 billion m³ of water used in the process – equivalent to 200,000 litres per year per household or 1,000 filled bathtubs[2].

Dr Bingham said: “With 3D printing there is no limit to what you can build and it is this design freedom which makes the technology so exciting by bringing to life what was previously considered to be impossible.

“This landmark technology allows us as designers to innovate faster and create personalised, ready-to-wear fashion in a digital world with no geometrical constraints and almost zero waste material. We envisage that with further development of the technology, we could 3D print a garment within 24 hours.

David Yeh, Managing Director, Tong Siang (Yeh Group), said: “3D Fashion supports the Yeh Group vision of direct polymer to garment manufacture. The Yeh Group is always striving to cut out unnecessary waste and resource use, and support the industries goals of faster to market, creating a manufacturing technology that brands and retailers can install closer to their customers. This is all with no compromise to performance.”

Loughborough University has produced a video about this project,

You can find out more about the Yeh Group on their website or on their Facebook page. I believe the company is headquartered in Thailand but I can’t tell if Tong Siang (the Yeh Group? on LinkedIn) is the corporate parent, the subsidiary, or an alternate company name.