Category Archives: Technology

The perfect keyboard: it self-cleans and self-powers and it can identify its owner(s)

There’s a pretty nifty piece of technology being described in a Jan. 21, 2015 news item on Nanowerk, which focuses on the security aspects first (Note: A link has been removed),

In a novel twist in cybersecurity, scientists have developed a self-cleaning, self-powered smart keyboard that can identify computer users by the way they type. The device, reported in the journal ACS Nano (“Personalized Keystroke Dynamics for Self-Powered Human–Machine Interfacing”), could help prevent unauthorized users from gaining direct access to computers.

A Jan. 21, 2015 American Chemical Society (ACS) news release (also on EurekAlert), which originated the news item, continues with the keyboard’s security features before briefly mentioning the keyboard’s self-powering and self-cleaning capabilities,

Zhong Lin Wang and colleagues note that password protection is one of the most common ways we control who can log onto our computers — and see the private information we entrust to them. But as many recent high-profile stories about hacking and fraud have demonstrated, passwords are themselves vulnerable to theft. So Wang’s team set out to find a more secure but still cost-effective and user-friendly approach to safeguarding what’s on our computers.

The researchers developed a smart keyboard that can sense typing patterns — including the pressure applied to keys and speed — that can accurately distinguish one individual user from another. So even if someone knows your password, he or she cannot access your computer because that person types in a different way than you would. It also can harness the energy generated from typing to either power itself or another small device. And the special surface coating repels dirt and grime. The scientists conclude that the keyboard could provide an additional layer of protection to boost the security of our computer systems.

Here’s a link to and a citation for the paper,

Personalized Keystroke Dynamics for Self-Powered Human–Machine Interfacing by Jun Chen, Guang Zhu, Jin Yang, Qingshen Jing, Peng Bai, Weiqing Yang, Xuewei Qi, Yuanjie Su, and Zhong Lin Wang. ACS Nano, Article ASAP DOI: 10.1021/nn506832w Publication Date (Web): December 30, 2014

Copyright © 2014 American Chemical Society

This paper is behind a paywall. I did manage a peek at the paper and found that the keyboard is able to somehow harvest the mechanical energy of typing and turn it into electricity so it can self-power. Self-cleaning is made possible by a nanostructure surface modification. An idle thought and a final comment. First, I wonder what happens if you want to or have to share your keyboard? Second, a Jan. 21, 2015 article about the intelligent keyboard by Luke Dormehl for Fast Company notes that the researchers are from the US and China and names two of the institutions involved in this collaboration, Georgia Institute of Technology and the Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems,.

ETA Jan. 23, 2015: There’s a Georgia Institute of Technology Jan. 21, 2015 news release on EurekAlert about the intelligent keyboard which offers more technical details such as these,

Conventional keyboards record when a keystroke makes a mechanical contact, indicating the press of a specific key. The intelligent keyboard records each letter touched, but also captures information about the amount of force applied to the key and the length of time between one keystroke and the next. Such typing style is unique to individuals, and so could provide a new biometric for securing computers from unauthorized use.

In addition to providing a small electrical current for registering the key presses, the new keyboard could also generate enough electricity to charge a small portable electronic device or power a transmitter to make the keyboard wireless.

An effect known as contact electrification generates current when the user’s fingertips touch a plastic material on which a layer of electrode material has been coated. Voltage is generated through the triboelectric and electrostatic induction effects. Using the triboelectric effect, a small charge can be produced whenever materials are brought into contact and then moved apart.

“Our skin is dielectric and we have electrostatic charges in our fingers,” Wang noted. “Anything we touch can become charged.”

Instead of individual mechanical keys as in traditional keyboards, Wang’s intelligent keyboard is made up of vertically-stacked transparent film materials. Researchers begin with a layer of polyethylene terephthalate between two layers of indium tin oxide (ITO) that form top and bottom electrodes.

Next, a layer of fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) is applied onto the ITO surface to serve as an electrification layer that generates triboelectric charges when touched by fingertips. FEP nanowire arrays are formed on the exposed FEP surface through reactive ion etching.

The keyboard’s operation is based on coupling between contact electrification and electrostatic induction, rather than the traditional mechanical switching. When a finger contacts the FEP, charge is transferred at the contact interface, injecting electrons from the skin into the material and creating a positive charge.

When the finger moves away, the negative charges on the FEP side induces positive charges on the top electrode, and equal amounts of negative charges on the bottom electrode. Consecutive keystrokes produce a periodic electrical field that drives reciprocating flows of electrons between the electrodes. Though eventually dissipating, the charges remain on the FEP surface for an extended period of time.

Wang believes the new smart keyboard will be competitive with existing keyboards, in both cost and durability. The new device is based on inexpensive materials that are widely used in the electronics industry.

Part-time job at the Society for Canadian Women in Science and Technology (SCWIST)

The Vancouver-based Society for Canadian Women in Science and Technology (SCWIST) has a part-time, contract position available. From the SCWIST Coordinator – MS Infinity Program job page,

The Society for Canadian Women in Science and Technology (SCWIST) is a non-profit association that promotes, encourages and empowers women and girls in science, engineering and technology. Ms Infinity programs introduce girls to exciting career options and female role models in science and technology. Conferences and workshops with fun filled activities bring science alive. Girls are introduced to jobs from all areas of science and get the support they need when deciding how to take their interest in science further with e-mentor and role model programs.

POSITION OVERVIEW & KEY RESPONSIBILITIES

Title: Coordinator – MS Infinity Program
Type: Part-time contract (12 – 18 hours per week)
Start: ASAP
Application deadline: January 20, 2015
Reports to: Director of Outreach
Time Commitment:  This is a 6-month contract, to be renewed based on grant funding

Coordination and promotion of ms infinity programming:

  • Volunteer recruitment and management
  • Volunteer training, development and communication (quarterly e-newsletter)
  • Preparation of promotional material and marketing of the program
  • Organization of and communication with the ms infinity committee
  • Communication with workshop/ event/ conference organizers
  • Promotion of ms infinity offerings to SCWIST members
  • Assistance in workshop, event and conference organization
  • Research of new workshop and event possibilities to extend the reach of ms infinity
  • Development of new educational workshops
  • Grant application, reporting and budget management

Coordination of the e-mentoring program:

  • Program administration
  • Recruitment of mentors and mentees
  • Organization of discussion topics

Qualifications:

  • A degree in science or education
  • Experience in informal science education and program coordination
  • Positive, enthusiastic attitude
  • Ability to present the Society well in the science learning and promotion community
  • Strong organizational and communication skills
  • Self-motivated with attention to detail
  • Experience in event organization and management, as well as experience managing budgets
  • Excellent knowledge in MS Office and social media tools

Additional application information is on the job page.

India and a National Seminar on Literature in the Emerging Contexts of Technology and Culture

I recently got a notice about an intriguing national seminar being held at Punjabi University (India). From a Dec. 12, 2014 notice,

The Department of English is pleased to invite you to the National Seminar on Literature in the Emerging Contexts of Technology and Culture being held on February 25 and 26, 2015.

There is an old, almost primal, bond between writing and technology. From the earliest tools of writing—probably a sharp-edged stone—to the stylus pen, from the clay tablet to the capacitive touch screen, this bond has proclaimed itself with all the force of technology’s materiality. However, the relatively rapid emergence and acceptance of the digital writing environment has foregrounded with unprecedented clarity how command and control are always already embedded in communication. Moreover, in the specific sphere of literary production, the opaqueness of creativity stands further complicated with the entry of the programmer, often in the very person of the writer. At the other end, reading struggles to break free from the constraints of both the verbal and the linear as it goes multimedia and hypertextual, making fresh demands upon the human sensorium. The result is that the received narratives of literary history face radical interruptions.

While cultures enfold and shape literatures and technologies, it must be admitted that they are also articulated and shaped by the latter. Technology in particular has advanced and proliferated so much in the last three decades that it has come to be regarded as a culture in its own right. It has come to acquire, particularly since the early decades of the twentieth century, a presence and authority it never really possessed before. With prosthetics, simulation and remote-sensing, for instance, it has brought within the horizon of realization the human aspiration for self-overcoming. Yet in spite of its numerous enabling, even liberating, tools, technology has also often tended to close off several modes of cognition and perception. While most of us would like to believe that we use technology, it is no less true that technology also uses us. Heidegger correctly warned of the potential, inherent in modern technology, to reduce the human beings to its resources and reserves. He also alerted us to its elusive ways, particularly the way it resists being thought and pre-empts any attempts to think beyond itself, thereby instituting itself as the exclusive horizon of thinking. Paradoxically, like a literary text or like thought itself, technology may have some chinks, certain gaps or spaces, through which it may be glimpsed against its larger, imposing tendencies.

The ostensible self-sufficiency and plenitude of the technological, as of the cultural, can be questioned and their nature examined probably most productively from a space which is structured self-reflexively, that is from the space of the literary. At the same time, the implications of the technological turn, especially in its digital avatar, for literature, as also for culture, demand thinking.

The proposed seminar will be an opportunity to reflect on these and related issues, with which a whole galaxy of thinkers have engaged — from Walter Benjamin, Martin Heidegger, Raymond Williams and Jean Baudrillard to Donna Haraway, George Landow, Lev Manovich, Bernard Steigler, Katherine Hayles, Henry Jenkins, Hubert Dreyfus, Mari-Laure Ryan, the Krokers, Manuel Castells, Fredrich Kittler, David J Bolter, Manuel De Landa, Nick Montfort, Noah Wardrip-Fruin and others. Among the areas on which papers/presentations for the seminar are expected are:

  • The Work of Literature/Art in the Digital Age
  • Cultures of Technology and Technologies of Culture
  • Resistance and Appropriation Online: Strategies and Subterfuges
  • Global Capitalism and Cyberspace
  • Posthumanist Culture and Its Literatures
  • Digital Humanities and the Literary Text
  • Reconsidering Literature: Between Technology and Theory
  • Virtuality and/as Fiction
  • Plotting the Mutating Networks: The Logics of Contingency
  • Writing Technologies and Literature
  • Reading Literature in the Digital Age
  • Literature and Gaming
  • After the Death of the Author: The Posthuman Authority
  • Cyberpunk Writing
  • Teaching Literature in the Post-Gutenberg Classroom

Submission of abstracts: By 20 January 2015
Submission of papers: By 10 February 2015
Registration Fee: Rs. 1000/- (Rs. 500 for Research Scholars/Students)

All submissions must be made through email to [email protected] and/or [email protected].

Lodging and hospitality shall be provided by the University to all outstation resource persons and, subject to availability, to paper presenters. In view of financial constraints, it may not be possible to reimburse travel expenses to all paper presenters.

Rajesh Sharma
Seminar Director
Professor and Head
Department of English
783 796 0942
0175-304 6246

Jaspreet Mander
Associate Professor of English
Seminar Coordinator
941 792 3373

I couldn’t agree with the sentiments more, applaud the organizers’ ambitious scope, and wish them the best!

PS: There is a Canada/India/Southeast Asia project, Cosmopolitanism and the Local in Science and Nature: Creating an East/West Partnership, that’s starting up soon as per my Dec. 12, 2014 post and this seminar would seem like an opportunity for those academics to reach out. Finally, you can get more information about Punjabi University here.

Canadian nano: Lomiko Metals and its graphene supercapacitor project and NanoTech Security at a TEDx in Vancouver (Canada)

As best I can determine Lomiko Metals is involved in a graphene-based supercapacitor project with at least two interlocking pieces. Piece one is described in an Oct. 28, 2014 news item on Azonano,

Lomiko Metals Inc. and its 100% owned subsidiary Lomiko Technologies Inc. are pleased to announce an agreement to license from Megahertz Power Systems Ltd. rights to manufacture and sell three (3) power converter system designs, acquire a pending supply contract with a Canadian LED system integrator and support the research and development of new products.

“The Power Converter Market is a multi-billion dollar market. With the increasing demand for energy-efficient electronic devices, the advent of re-chargeable batteries and the new market for quick-charge supercapacitors, Lomiko has the opportunity to move into a growing market with a profitable business model.”, stated A. Paul Gill, CEO. [emphasis mine]

Lomiko will establish cash-flow under the current Customer Contract within six months which is based on proven and in-demand devices designed by MegaHertz. The creation of an e-commerce site in three to four (3-4) months will increase the customer base for the Licensed Power Systems over the estimated five (5) year product cycle. In the long term, Lomiko and MegaHertz will work on innovative new designs that power products using graphite and graphene based devices to dramatically raise operating efficiencies and help reduce the energy waste for the Electronic equipment, Energy Storage and Automotive Industries worldwide. [emphasis mine]

You can read more about the details in the Azonano news item or in the Lomiko Metals Oct. 27, 2014 news release.

As for piece two, Lomiko Metals has announced a supecapacitor project which would seem to align with the objectives mentioned in the October 2014 MegaHertz deal “… Lomiko and MegaHertz will work on innovative new designs that power products using graphite and graphene based devices to dramatically raise operating efficiencies and help reduce the energy waste … .” From a Dec. 4, 2014 news item on Azonano,

Lomiko Metals Inc. is very pleased to announce it has signed an agreement to invest in a new graphene-related venture, Graphene Energy Storage Devices (Graphene ESD Corp.), a U.S. Corporation.

On December 4, 2013, Lomiko reported on a successful conclusion to Phase I of its Graphene Supercapacitor Project which involved Graphene Laboratories Inc. and Stony Brook University. Graphene ESD Corp. has been formed to commercialize the technology and bring the graphene-based energy storage devices to market.

Supercapacitors bridge the gap between conventional capacitors and rechargeable batteries. They store the most energy per unit volume or mass (energy density) among capacitors. Supercapacitors power density is generally 10 to 100 times greater than normal capacitors or batteries. This results in much shorter charge/discharge cycles than batteries. Additionally, they will tolerate many more charge and discharge cycles than batteries. Incorporation of graphene material in supercapacitor electrodes may further improve energy and power density of the device. Graphene ESD Corp. will develop low-cost graphene-based supercapacitor devices that will be capable of even higher discharge currents. The development will focus on large-scale devices that are projected to have the lowest cost of power and stored energy in its class.

“As reported December 4, 2013, the Phase I Graphene Supercapacitor project yielded encouraging results. Graphene ESD Corp. will build on the success of this project and will be developing a graphene-based supercapacitor. [emphasis mine] The device is designed as a versatile energy storage solution for electronics, electric vehicles and electric grid.” stated A. Paul Gill, CEO of Lomiko Metals Inc. [emphasis mine] Graphene is finding new application in sensors, electronics, and advanced materials. Energy storage is a rapidly developing field which can benefit from the outstanding properties of graphene. We believe that graphene-based devices will deliver the best value for multiple energy storage applications.”

You can find more details both in the Azonano news item and in the Lomiko Metals Dec. 3, 2014 news release.

The second half of this post’s headline concerns a talk by Clint Landrock, Executive Vice President of Products for NanoTech Security Corp. and more, at the Renfrew-Collingwood (a neighbourhood in Vancouver, Canada) TEDx. From an Oct. 29, 2014 news item on Azonano,

Nanotech Security Corp. today announced that Vice President Clint Landrock presented at TEDxRenfrewCollingwood. The independently organized TED event was held on October 24, 2014.

The day-long event brought together more than 400 creators, catalysis, designers and thinkers from the Vancouver area to share ideas around the theme “Rock, Paper, Scissors.” Landrock presented on the influence of nature on innovation in technology, using Nanotech’s story as one example of what can be achieved when companies turn to nature as a source of inspiration. …

Landrock’s talk (a little over 11 mins. running time) has now been posted on YouTube or you can find it here. The organizers have posted this description of Landrock,

Clint serves as the Executive Vice President of Products for NanoTech Security Corp., and is a co-founder of IDME Technologies Corp.  He is an expert in the study of nano-optics and biomimicry. Clint currently holds several patents and over a dozen peer-reviewed publications in the field. He completed his bachelor degree in aerospace engineering at Ryerson Polytechnic University in Toronto, and his Masters of Applied Sciences at Simon Fraser University. Clint’s interests include commercial applications of nanotechnology and smart polymers, biomimicry, alpine and rock climbing and generally being outside.

I haven’t watched the talk in its entirety but he starts with the wonder and the dark side of technology. As his company, NanoTech Security, is a spin-off from Simon Fraser University and the technology is based on the nanostructures found on the Blue Morpho butterfly’s wing, I imagine the rest of his talk consists of biomimcry and ways of imitating nature as a means of dealing with the damaging aspects resulting from some of our current technologies.

Intel’s 14nm chip: architecture revealed and scientist discusses the limits to computers

Anxieties about how much longer we can design and manufacture smaller, faster computer chips are commonplace even as companies continue to announce new, faster, smaller chips. Just before the US National Science Foundation (NSF) issued a press release concerning a Nature (journal) essay on the limits of computation, Intel announced a new microarchitecture for its 14nm chips .

First, there’s Intel. In an Aug. 12, 2014 news item on Azonano, Intel announced its newest microarchitecture optimization,

Intel today disclosed details of its newest microarchitecture that is optimized with Intel’s industry-leading 14nm manufacturing process. Together these technologies will provide high-performance and low-power capabilities to serve a broad array of computing needs and products from the infrastructure of cloud computing and the Internet of Things to personal and mobile computing.

An Aug. 11, 2014 Intel news release, which originated the news item, lists key points,

  • Intel disclosed details of the microarchitecture of the Intel® Core™ M processor, the first product to be manufactured using 14nm.
  • The combination of the new microarchitecture and manufacturing process will usher in a wave of innovation in new form factors, experiences and systems that are thinner and run silent and cool.
  • Intel architects and chip designers have achieved greater than two times reduction in the thermal design point when compared to a previous generation of processor while providing similar performance and improved battery life.
  • The new microarchitecture was optimized to take advantage of the new capabilities of the 14nm manufacturing process.
  • Intel has delivered the world’s first 14nm technology in volume production. It uses second-generation Tri-gate (FinFET) transistors with industry-leading performance, power, density and cost per transistor.
  • Intel’s 14nm technology will be used to manufacture a wide range of high-performance to low-power products including servers, personal computing devices and Internet of Things.
  • The first systems based on the Intel® Core™ M processor will be on shelves for the holiday selling season followed by broader OEM availability in the first half of 2015.
  • Additional products based on the Broadwell microarchitecture and 14nm process technology will be introduced in the coming months.

The company has made available supporting materials including videos titled, ‘Advancing Moore’s Law in 2014′, ‘Microscopic Mark Bohr: 14nm Explained’, and ‘Intel 14nm Manufacturing Process’ which can be found here. An earlier mention of Intel and its 14nm manufacturing process can be found in my July 9, 2014 posting.

Meanwhile, in a more contemplative mood, Igor Markov of the University of Michigan has written an essay for Nature questioning the limits of computation as per an Aug. 14, 2014 news item on Azonano,

From their origins in the 1940s as sequestered, room-sized machines designed for military and scientific use, computers have made a rapid march into the mainstream, radically transforming industry, commerce, entertainment and governance while shrinking to become ubiquitous handheld portals to the world.

This progress has been driven by the industry’s ability to continually innovate techniques for packing increasing amounts of computational circuitry into smaller and denser microchips. But with miniature computer processors now containing millions of closely-packed transistor components of near atomic size, chip designers are facing both engineering and fundamental limits that have become barriers to the continued improvement of computer performance.

Have we reached the limits to computation?

In a review article in this week’s issue of the journal Nature, Igor Markov of the University of Michigan reviews limiting factors in the development of computing systems to help determine what is achievable, identifying “loose” limits and viable opportunities for advancements through the use of emerging technologies. His research for this project was funded in part by the National Science Foundation (NSF).

An Aug. 13, 2014 NSF news release, which originated the news item, describes Markov’s Nature essay in greater detail,

“Just as the second law of thermodynamics was inspired by the discovery of heat engines during the industrial revolution, we are poised to identify fundamental laws that could enunciate the limits of computation in the present information age,” says Sankar Basu, a program director in NSF’s Computer and Information Science and Engineering Directorate. “Markov’s paper revolves around this important intellectual question of our time and briefly touches upon most threads of scientific work leading up to it.”

The article summarizes and examines limitations in the areas of manufacturing and engineering, design and validation, power and heat, time and space, as well as information and computational complexity.​

“What are these limits, and are some of them negotiable? On which assumptions are they based? How can they be overcome?” asks Markov. “Given the wealth of knowledge about limits to computation and complicated relations between such limits, it is important to measure both dominant and emerging technologies against them.”

Limits related to materials and manufacturing are immediately perceptible. In a material layer ten atoms thick, missing one atom due to imprecise manufacturing changes electrical parameters by ten percent or more. Shrinking designs of this scale further inevitably leads to quantum physics and associated limits.

Limits related to engineering are dependent upon design decisions, technical abilities and the ability to validate designs. While very real, these limits are difficult to quantify. However, once the premises of a limit are understood, obstacles to improvement can potentially be eliminated. One such breakthrough has been in writing software to automatically find, diagnose and fix bugs in hardware designs.

Limits related to power and energy have been studied for many years, but only recently have chip designers found ways to improve the energy consumption of processors by temporarily turning off parts of the chip. There are many other clever tricks for saving energy during computation. But moving forward, silicon chips will not maintain the pace of improvement without radical changes. Atomic physics suggests intriguing possibilities but these are far beyond modern engineering capabilities.

Limits relating to time and space can be felt in practice. The speed of light, while a very large number, limits how fast data can travel. Traveling through copper wires and silicon transistors, a signal can no longer traverse a chip in one clock cycle today. A formula limiting parallel computation in terms of device size, communication speed and the number of available dimensions has been known for more than 20 years, but only recently has it become important now that transistors are faster than interconnections. This is why alternatives to conventional wires are being developed, but in the meantime mathematical optimization can be used to reduce the length of wires by rearranging transistors and other components.

Several key limits related to information and computational complexity have been reached by modern computers. Some categories of computational tasks are conjectured to be so difficult to solve that no proposed technology, not even quantum computing, promises consistent advantage. But studying each task individually often helps reformulate it for more efficient computation.

When a specific limit is approached and obstructs progress, understanding the assumptions made is key to circumventing it. Chip scaling will continue for the next few years, but each step forward will meet serious obstacles, some too powerful to circumvent.

What about breakthrough technologies? New techniques and materials can be helpful in several ways and can potentially be “game changers” with respect to traditional limits. For example, carbon nanotube transistors provide greater drive strength and can potentially reduce delay, decrease energy consumption and shrink the footprint of an overall circuit. On the other hand, fundamental limits–sometimes not initially anticipated–tend to obstruct new and emerging technologies, so it is important to understand them before promising a new revolution in power, performance and other factors.

“Understanding these important limits,” says Markov, “will help us to bet on the right new techniques and technologies.”

Here’s a link to and a citation for Markov’s article,

Limits on fundamental limits to computation by Igor L. Markov. Nature 512, 147–154 (14 August 2014) doi:10.1038/nature13570 Published online 13 August 2014

This paper is behind a paywall but a free preview is available via ReadCube Access.

It’s a fascinating question, what are the limits? It’s one being asked not only with regard to computation but also to medicine, human enhancement, and artificial intelligence for just a few areas of endeavour.

TED Global would like to see you in Rio—USD $6,000 + application required

TED (technology, entertainment, design) Global is being held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in October 2014 and there are still a few spots left for participants according to a July 23, 2014 notice (I checked here, there are still openings as of Aug. 1, 2014),

In early October, Rio de Janeiro will host our first TEDGlobal in South America. The conference theme is “South” and you can meet here. Held in the historic Copacabana Palace Hotel on the eponymous beach, TEDGlobal 2014 promises speakers with amazing new ideas to stimulate your mind, while the rest of you takes in the beauty that is Rio: the ocean, the beach, the volcanic mountains, and the energetic Cariocas. It is simply one of the most beautiful cities on Earth.

We hope you will join us at this more intimately scaled event (half the size of TED in Vancouver), and celebrate ideas from across the Global South.

The conference takes place October 5-10, 2014. During five immersive days of talks, music, performances, tech demos, exhibits and wonderful parties, the conference will focus on the Global South’s rise in influence and power — plus relevant stories from the rest of the world.

A small number of passes remain for $6,000 and $12,000. …

Questions? Email [email protected].

Vê-lo no Rio (See you in Rio)

There is a list of their currently confirmed speakers here. It includes:

Grimanesa Amoros, Peruvian interdisciplinary artist

Séverine Autesserre, Congo scholar
Tasso Azevedo, Brazilian forest conservationist
Rodrigo Baggio, Brazilian digital inclusionist
Khalida Brohi, Pakistani equality activist

Wendy Freedman, Astronomer

Syed Karim, Satellite datacaster
...
Miguel Nicolelis, Brain interface pioneer

Mark Plotkin, Amazonian ethnobotanist

Matthieu Ricard, Buddhist monk

Steve Song, Africa connectivity tinkerer
Jorge Soto, Cancer detection technologist

Zeynep Tufekci, Technosociologist

Tashka Yawanawa, Amazonian chief

I recognized two names on the full list: Miguel Nicolelis (featured here many times and most recently in a May 20, 2014 posting) and Matthieu Ricard (mentioned here once.in an April 11, 2013 posting). Both of them were mentioned in regard to the field of neuroscience.

On that note, Happy Weekend on what is a long weekend for many Canadians including me!

Better RRAM memory devices in the short term

Given my recent spate of posts about computing and the future of the chip (list to follow at the end of this post), this Rice University [Texas, US] research suggests that some improvements to current memory devices might be coming to the market in the near future. From a July 12, 2014 news item on Azonano,

Rice University’s breakthrough silicon oxide technology for high-density, next-generation computer memory is one step closer to mass production, thanks to a refinement that will allow manufacturers to fabricate devices at room temperature with conventional production methods.

A July 10, 2014 Rice University news release, which originated the news item, provides more detail,

Tour and colleagues began work on their breakthrough RRAM technology more than five years ago. The basic concept behind resistive memory devices is the insertion of a dielectric material — one that won’t normally conduct electricity — between two wires. When a sufficiently high voltage is applied across the wires, a narrow conduction path can be formed through the dielectric material.

The presence or absence of these conduction pathways can be used to represent the binary 1s and 0s of digital data. Research with a number of dielectric materials over the past decade has shown that such conduction pathways can be formed, broken and reformed thousands of times, which means RRAM can be used as the basis of rewritable random-access memory.

RRAM is under development worldwide and expected to supplant flash memory technology in the marketplace within a few years because it is faster than flash and can pack far more information into less space. For example, manufacturers have announced plans for RRAM prototype chips that will be capable of storing about one terabyte of data on a device the size of a postage stamp — more than 50 times the data density of current flash memory technology.

The key ingredient of Rice’s RRAM is its dielectric component, silicon oxide. Silicon is the most abundant element on Earth and the basic ingredient in conventional microchips. Microelectronics fabrication technologies based on silicon are widespread and easily understood, but until the 2010 discovery of conductive filament pathways in silicon oxide in Tour’s lab, the material wasn’t considered an option for RRAM.

Since then, Tour’s team has raced to further develop its RRAM and even used it for exotic new devices like transparent flexible memory chips. At the same time, the researchers also conducted countless tests to compare the performance of silicon oxide memories with competing dielectric RRAM technologies.

“Our technology is the only one that satisfies every market requirement, both from a production and a performance standpoint, for nonvolatile memory,” Tour said. “It can be manufactured at room temperature, has an extremely low forming voltage, high on-off ratio, low power consumption, nine-bit capacity per cell, exceptional switching speeds and excellent cycling endurance.”

In the latest study, a team headed by lead author and Rice postdoctoral researcher Gunuk Wang showed that using a porous version of silicon oxide could dramatically improve Rice’s RRAM in several ways. First, the porous material reduced the forming voltage — the power needed to form conduction pathways — to less than two volts, a 13-fold improvement over the team’s previous best and a number that stacks up against competing RRAM technologies. In addition, the porous silicon oxide also allowed Tour’s team to eliminate the need for a “device edge structure.”

“That means we can take a sheet of porous silicon oxide and just drop down electrodes without having to fabricate edges,” Tour said. “When we made our initial announcement about silicon oxide in 2010, one of the first questions I got from industry was whether we could do this without fabricating edges. At the time we could not, but the change to porous silicon oxide finally allows us to do that.”

Wang said, “We also demonstrated that the porous silicon oxide material increased the endurance cycles more than 100 times as compared with previous nonporous silicon oxide memories. Finally, the porous silicon oxide material has a capacity of up to nine bits per cell that is highest number among oxide-based memories, and the multiple capacity is unaffected by high temperatures.”

Tour said the latest developments with porous silicon oxide — reduced forming voltage, elimination of need for edge fabrication, excellent endurance cycling and multi-bit capacity — are extremely appealing to memory companies.

“This is a major accomplishment, and we’ve already been approached by companies interested in licensing this new technology,” he said.

Here’s a link to and a citation for the paper,

Nanoporous Silicon Oxide Memory by Gunuk Wang, Yang Yang, Jae-Hwang Lee, Vera Abramova, Huilong Fei, Gedeng Ruan, Edwin L. Thomas, and James M. Tour. Nano Lett., Article ASAP DOI: 10.1021/nl501803s Publication Date (Web): July 3, 2014

Copyright © 2014 American Chemical Society

This paper is behind a paywall.

As for my recent spate of posts on computers and chips, there’s a July 11, 2014 posting about IBM, a 7nm chip, and much more; a July 9, 2014 posting about Intel and its 14nm low-power chip processing and plans for a 10nm chip; and, finally, a June 26, 2014 posting about HP Labs and its plans for memristive-based computing and their project dubbed ‘The Machine’.

The Space, a new digital museum opens with an international splash

Erica Berger in a June 14, 2014 article for Fast Company provides a fascinating account of a project where Arts Council England, the BBC, Open Data Institute, and other cultural groups partnered to create: The Space (Note: Links have been removed),

This Space is no final frontier. Rather, it’s just begun as a new place for digital and experimental art.

A free and public website aimed at discovering the best emerging digital artistic talent around the world, The Space opened yesterday and is launching with a weekend [June 14 – 15, 2014] hackathon hosted by the Tate Modern in London, a first for the formidable institution. Born from a partnership between Arts Council England, the BBC, Open Data Institute, and other cultural groups, it’s “a gallery without walls,” says Alex Graham, chair of The Space. The Space is putting out an international open call for projects, the first round of which is due July 11. The projects will be funded by the partnering groups with amounts ranging from £20,000 (about $34,000) to £60,000 ($101,000) for an individual commission, and up to 50% of the total cost. Each Friday, new collaborations will launch.

Among the first installations are pieces from high-profile artists, including Marina Abramovic, who broadcasted live on the site at midnight last night, and Ai Weiwei, who has an interactive piece on The Space. There will also be a live, Google hangout theater project with actors in London, Barcelona, and Lagos and directed by Erin Gilley.

The Space can be found here,

About The Space

The Space is a free website for artists and audiences to create and explore exciting new art, commissioned by us and shared around the Whole Wide World.

We commission new talent and great artists from all art forms, creative industries, technical and digital backgrounds, through Open Calls and partnerships. The Space is one of the most exciting places on the internet to find new art to explore and enjoy.

An open call was launched on June 12, 2014,

The Space launches first Open Call
Posted … on 12 June 2014

The Space Open Call is looking for original, groundbreaking ideas for digital art. We are encouraging artists to take risks and do crazy things with technology!

This is a great opportunity for artists to be bold, ambitious and experimental, creating a work which can communicate wi people round the World via mobile, tablets and desktops.

We are seeking artists working across a range of art forms and industries including, creative and digital, technology and coding, art and culture sectors, to pitch the very best original ideas to the Open Call.

If you have an idea for The Space, please go to thespace.org/opencall and complete the online form before the closing date: 12 noon (GMT) 11 July 2014.​

Organizers have produced an inspirational video for this call,

I don’t know if this offer is still available (from Erica Berger’s Fast Company article about The Space) but here it is,

Sign up to be one of the first 10,000 newsletter subscribers to The Space and receive a free digital work of art from Turner Prize winner Jeremy Deller.

I availed myself of the offer at approximately 1000 hours PDT, June 16, 2014.

Damage-free art authentication and spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS)

In a world where people will shell out millions of dollars for a single painting, art authentication of some kind is mandatory from a buyer’s perspective while sellers might be a little more reluctant. Reliance on experts who have an intimate familiarity with an artist’s body of work, personal and professional history, as well as, the historical period in which the work was created is the norm. Technological means are not necessarily as heavily employed as one might expect. Given that most technical analyses require damage of some kind, no matter how miniscule, some reluctance is understandable.

A May 29, 2014 news item on phys.org describes a new, damage-free, art conservation and restoration process (which could easily be used for authentication purposes),

UK scientists, working on an international project to conserve precious works of art, have found a new way to analyse paintings without having to remove even a tiny speck of the paint to inspect the layers below.

Using laser spectroscopy, a method that uses light to probe under the surface of an object, the international team has developed a new, non-invasive way to identify the chemical content of the paint layers present.

This new technique will reduce the risk of damage to precious paintings, often worth thousands or even millions of pounds, when conservation and restoration work is being carried out.

Using laser spectroscopy, a method that uses light to probe under the surface of an object, the international team has developed a new, non-invasive way to identify the chemical content of the paint layers present.

This new technique will reduce the risk of damage to precious paintings, often worth thousands or even millions of pounds, when conservation and restoration work is being carried out.

Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2014-05-lasers-analyse-priceless-art.html#jCp

As noted in a March 24, 2014 posting about using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to determine the characteristics of red pigment in a Renoir painting, restoration, authentication, and conservation are all linked once researchers start a technical examination,

This next item is about forgery detection. A March 5, 2014 news release on EurekAlert describes the latest developments,

Gallery owners, private collectors, conservators, museums and art dealers face many problems in protecting and evaluating their collections such as determining origin, authenticity and discovery of forgery, as well as conservation issues. Today these problems are more accurately addressed through the application of modern, non-destructive, “hi-tech” techniques.

Getting back to this new technique, a May 28, 2014 Science and Technology Facilities Council news release, which originated the news item, provides information about the various agencies involved with this work and offers some technical detail about the new technique,

The new approach is derived from a technique called Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS). It was originally developed by UK researchers at the Science and Technology Research Council’s (STFC) Central Laser Facility within the Research Complex at Harwell. Now they have joined forces with researchers from the Institute for the Conservation and Promotion of Cultural Heritage (ICVBC), part of Italy’s National Research Council (CNR) to adapt this technology to test paintings without having to destroy any part of them.

The SORS technique involves shining the laser light onto an opaque object. A small number of photons (light ‘particles’) will scatter back, changing colour according to the different paint components they represent, and allowing the scientists to analyse the chemical composition in depth.

Professor Pavel Matousek, from STFC’s Central Laser Facility, explained. “Building on our earlier SORS research, we’ve transformed the method to allow us to probe the painted layers for the first time,” he said. “We’ve called it Micro-SORS because we can analyse the layers at the micrometer scale, rather than the usual millimetre scale”.

For comparison of scale, a human hair is about 100 micrometers wide.

Dr Claudia Conti, a scientist at the ICVBC in Italy, said, “When I heard about the potential of SORS and how it could be applied, I realised the huge contribution this method of analysis could bring to the conservation of artworks.”

The research team tested the Micro-SORS method by collecting data from the light scattered across a surface of painted layers, artificially prepared to mimic a real painting. They isolated the light signals of the individual paint layers, enabling them to assess the chemical make-up of each layer.

The next step in the team’s research is to optimise the sensitivity and depth of penetration, and apply the technique to real artwork.

SORS has been used in other applications, from the news release,

The original SORS technique has already been applied to a number of problems, including non-invasive breast cancer diagnosis and bone disease diagnosis.The Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) has also launched a spin-out company, Cobalt Light Systems, which uses the SORS technology and has recently developed products for scanning liquids in unopened bottles for airport security, and in pharmaceutical quality control.

Here’s a link to and a citation for the research paper,

Subsurface Raman Analysis of Thin Painted Layers by Claudia Conti, Chiara Colombo, Marco Realini, Giuseppe Zerbi, and Pavel Matousek. Applied Spectroscopy, Volume 68, Number 6, June 2014, pp. 686-691(6) doi.org/10.1366/13-07376 Available online via Ingentaconnect

This article is open access.

Agency of Science Communication, Technology and Innovation of Argentina (ACCTINA)

In a May 9, 2014 posting for SciDev.Net, Cecilia Rosen mentions an announcement about a new science communication agency for Argentina (Note: A link has been removed),

For a while now, Argentina has seemed serious about science as a means for development. This week, at the 13th International Public Communication of Science and Technology Conference (PCST2014), there was fresh evidence of this.

I learned that President Cristina Kirchner’s government is setting up a specialised agency within the science ministry to boost science communication in the country. This is part of the government’s strategic goals for 2014.

It will be called the Agency of Science Communication, Technology and Innovation of Argentina (ACCTINA), and should be formally launched by the end of this year, if things go smoothly, according to Vera Brudny, head of the project at the ministry.

On the sidelines of PCST2014, she told me that ACCTINA will replace the National Program for Science Popularisation.

That’s an interesting move and unfortunately following up on this at some future date is going to be tricky since I don’t have any Spanish language skills.

For anyone interested in more about SciDev.Net, there’s this from the What we do page,

SciDev.Net is committed to putting science at the heart of global development.

Our website is the world’s leading source of reliable and authoritative news, views and analysis on information about science and technology for global development.

We engage primarily with development professionals, policymakers, researchers, the media and the informed public.

Our main office is based in London but we have seven editions: Sub-Saharan Africa English, Sub-Saharan Africa French, South Asia, Latin America & Caribbean, South-East Asia & Pacific, Middle-East & North Africa and Global. Between us we manage a worldwide network of registered users, advisors, consultants and freelance journalists who drive our activities and vision.

The 13th International Public Communication of Science and Technology Conference (PCST2014) is produced by the Network for the Public Communication of Science and Technology (PCST). Here’s more from the About PCST page,

PCST is a network of individuals from around the world who are active in producing and studying PCST. It sponsors international conferences, an electronic discussion list, and symposiums. The aim is to encourage discussion and debate across professional, cultural, international, and disciplinary boundaries.

Members of the PCST Network come from a range of backgrounds:

  • Researchers working on the theory and practice of science communication
  • Communication staff working for research organisations
  • Staff at science centres and museums
  • Science journalists
  • Students on the ethics and philosophy of science and the public
  • Writers and editors of scientific material
  • Web designers
  • Scientists who communicate with the public
  • Visual and performing artists working on science themes.

The PCST international conference takes place every two years. The 2014 PCST conference took place in Salvador, Brazil. Conferences like this would seem to confirm the comments I made in a May 20, 2014 posting,

Returning to 2014, the [World Cup {soccer}] kickoff in Brazil (if successful) symbolizes more than an international athletic competition or a technical/medical achievement, this kick-off symbolizes a technological future for Brazil and its place on the world stage (despite the protests and social unrest) .

Perhaps Argentina is getting ready to give Brazil a run for its money (slang for ‘provide some competition’).