Category Archives: coatings

Abakan makes good on Alberta (Canada) promise (coating for better pipeline transport of oil)

It took three years but it seems that US company Abakan Inc.’s announcement of a joint research development centre at the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology (NAIT), (mentioned here in a May 7, 2012 post [US company, Abakan, wants to get in on the Canadian oils sands market]), has borne fruit. A June 8, 2015 news item on Azonano describes the latest developments,

Abakan Inc., an emerging leader in the advanced coatings and metal formulations markets, today announced that it has begun operations at its joint-development facility in Edmonton, Alberta.

Abakan’s subsidiary, MesoCoat Inc., along with the lead project partner, Northern Alberta Institute of Technology (NAIT) will embark on an 18-month collaborative effort to establish a prototype demonstration facility for developing, testing and commercializing wear-resistant clad pipe and components. Western Economic Diversification Canada is also supporting this initiative through a $1.5 million investment toward NAIT. Improvements in wear resistance are expected to make a significant impact in reducing maintenance and downtime costs while increasing productivity in oil sands and other mining applications.

A June 4, 2015 Abakan news release, which originated the news item, provides more detail about the proposed facility, the difficulties encountered during the setup, and some interesting information about pipes,

Abakan shipped its CermaClad high-speed large-area cladding system for installation at the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology’s (NAIT) campus in Edmonton, Alberta in early 2015. Despite delays associated with the installation of some interrelated equipment and machinery, the CermaClad system and other ancillary equipment are now installed at the Edmonton facility. The Edmonton facility is intended to serve as a pilot-scale wear-resistant clad pipe manufacturing facility for the development and qualification of wear-resistant clad pipes, and as a stepping stone for setting-up a full-scale wear-resistant clad pipe manufacturing facility in Alberta. The new facility will also serve as a platform for Abakan’s introduction to the Alberta oil sands market, which, with proven reserves estimated at more than 169 billion barrels, is one of the largest oil resources in the world and a major source of oil for Canada, the United States and Asia. Since Alberta oil sands production is expected to increase significantly over the next decade, producers want to extend the life of the carbon steel pipes used for the hydro-transportation of tailings with harder, tougher coatings that protect pipes from the abrasiveness of tar-like bituminous oil sands.

“Our aim is to fast-track market entry of our wear-resistant clad pipe products for the transportation of oil sands and mining slurries. We have received commitments from oil sands producers in Canada and mining companies in Mexico and Brazil to field-test CermaClad wear-resistant clad pipe products as soon as our system is ready for testing. Apart from our work with conventional less expensive chrome carbide and the more expensive tungsten carbide wear-resistant cladding on pipes, Abakan also expects to introduce new iron-based structurally amorphous metal (SAM) alloy cladding that in testing has exhibited better performance than tungsten carbide cladding, but at a fraction of the cost.” Robert Miller stated further that “although more expensive than the more widely used chrome carbide cladding, our new alloy cladding is expected to be a significantly better value proposition when you consider an estimated life of three times that of chrome carbide cladding and those cost efficiencies that correspond to less downtime revenue losses, and lower maintenance and replacement costs.”

The costs associated with downtime and maintenance in the Alberta oil sands industry estimated at more than $10 billion a year are expected to grow as production expands, according to the Materials and Reliability in Oil Sands (MARIOS) consortium in Alberta. The development of Alberta’s oil sands has been held up by the lack of materials for transport lines and components that are resistant to the highly abrasive slurry. Due to high abrasion, the pipelines have to be rotated every three to four months and replaced every 12 to 15 months. [emphasis mine] The costs involved just in rotating and replacing the pipes is approximately $2 billion annually. The same is true of large components, for example the steel teeth on the giant electric shovels used to recover oil sands, must be replaced approximately every two days.

Abakan’s combination of high productivity coating processes and groundbreaking materials are expected to facilitate significant efficiencies associated with the extraction of these oil resources. Our proprietary materials combined with CermaClad large-area based fusion cladding technology, have demonstrated in laboratory tests a three to eight times improvement in wear and corrosion resistance when compared with traditional weld overlays at costs comparable to rubber and metal matrix composite alternatives. Abakan intends to complete development and initiate field-testing by end of year 2016 and begin the construction of a full-scale wear-resistant clad pipe manufacturing facility in Alberta in early-2017.

Given that there is extensive talk about expanding oil pipelines from Alberta to British Columbia (where I live), the information about the wear and tear is fascinating and disturbing. Emotions are high with regard to the proposed increase in oil flow to the coast as can be seen in a May 27, 2015 article by Mike Howell for the Vancouver Courier about a city hall report on the matter,

A major oil spill in Vancouver waters could potentially expose up to one million people to unsafe levels of a toxic vapour released from diluted bitumen, city council heard Wednesday in a damning city staff report on Kinder Morgan’s proposal to build a pipeline from Alberta to Burnaby [British Columbia].

In presenting the report, deputy city manager Sadhu Johnston outlined scenarios where exposure to the chemical benzene could lead to adverse health effects for residents and visitors, ranging from dizziness to nausea to possible death.

“For folks that are on the seawall, they could be actually struck with this wave of toxic gases that could render them unable to evacuate,” said Johnston, noting 25,000 residents live within 300 metres of the city’s waterfront. “These are serious health impacts. So this is not just about oil hitting shorelines, this is about our residents being exposed to very serious health effects.

  • Kinder Morgan’s own estimate is that pipeline leaks under 75 litres per hour may not be detected.

While I find the presentation’s hysteria a little off-putting, it did alert me to one or two new issues, benzene gas and when spillage from the pipes raises an alarm. For anyone curious about benzene gas and other chemical aspects of an oil spill, there’s a US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) webpage titled, Chemistry of an Oil Spill.

Getting back to the pipes, that figure of 75 litres per hour puts a new perspective on the proposed Abakan solution and it suggests that whether or not more and bigger pipes are in our future, we should do a better of job of protecting our environment now. That means better cladding for the pipes and better dispersants and remediation for water, earth, air when there’s a spill.

A coating for airplane windshields that mitigates laser intensity

Whether it’s done accidentally or with malice, blinding airplane pilots with lasers pointed at the windows of cockpits has become a serious problem. From the Lasers and aviation safety Wikipedia entry,

Pointing a laser at an aircraft can be hazardous to pilots[1] and has resulted in arrests, trials and jail sentences. It also results in calls to license or ban laser pointers.

A June 3, 2015 news item on Nanowerk describes a Lewis University technology that could help minimize this problem. (Lewis University is a private university located in the state of Illinois, US; Note: A link has been removed),

A recently published Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering article (“Measuring the Effectiveness of Photoresponsive Nanocomposite Coatings on Aircraft Windshields to Mitigate Laser Intensity”) shows Lewis University researchers have created a coating for aircraft that reduces pilot distraction from laser attacks.

In [sic] 2013 study, Lewis University proved these laser attacks, which average around 3,750 incidents a year, can be a distraction to pilots and a potential safety hazard during critical phases of flight. As part of continued research on the matter, Lewis University recently developed a practical and economical solution through the use of photoresponsive nanocomposite coatings on aircraft windscreens.

The most recent study determined the application of the engineered films resulted in a reduction in laser intensity from 36-88 percent.

A June 2, 2015 Lewis University news release, which originated the news item, provides a bit more detail about the research (Note: Links have been removed),

The study was completed through collaboration of the Aviation, Physics and Chemistry departments at Lewis University. The Chemistry Department developed the photoselective coatings, and the Physics Department developed the apparatus to efficiently test the coatings while allowing safe viewings of laser illumination. The coatings were bench-tested in a laboratory prior to conducting field tests at the 200- and 500-foot distances.

I was unfamiliar with Lewis University so was happy to see the news release fill in a few blanks (Note: Links have been removed),

This research was sponsored, in part, by a grant from the Colonel Stephan S. and Lyla Doherty Center for Aviation and Health Research. The Doherty Center funds research and scholarly initiatives and provides opportunities for research experiences for students with faculty mentors. Investigators supported by the Doherty Center have focused on several areas, such as cardiac therapy, wound management, flight deck laser illumination, the environment, diabetes, MRSA, and alternative fuels for aviation.

Since 1932, Lewis University has led the field of aviation education by preparing students from around the world to succeed in the aviation industries. An on-site airport, experienced and industry-leading faculty, personalized learning, degree programs that provide you with specialized experience and a well-rounded business, management and liberal arts education have made Lewis University’s aviation program one of the most respected in Illinois.

Lewis University is a Catholic university in the Lasallian tradition offering distinctive undergraduate and graduate programs to more than 6,700 traditional and adult students. Lewis offers multiple campus locations, online degree programs, and a variety of formats that provide accessibility and convenience to a growing student population. Sponsored by the De La Salle Christian Brothers, Lewis prepares intellectually engaged, ethically grounded, globally connected, and socially responsible graduates. The seventh largest private not-for-profit university in Illinois, Lewis has been nationally recognized by The Princeton Review and U.S. News & World Report. Visit www.lewisu.edu for further information.

Here’s a link to and a citation for the paper,

Measuring the Effectiveness of Photoresponsive Nanocompsite Coatings on Aircraft Windshields to Mitigate Laser Intensity by Ryan S. Phillips, Hubert K. Bilan, Zachary X. Widel, Randal J. DeMik, Samantha J. Brain, Matthew Moy, Charles Crowder, Stanley L. Harriman, James T. O’Malley III, Joseph E. Burlas, Steven F. Emmert, & Jason J. Keleher. Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering (2015): Vol. 4: Iss. 2, Article 5. http://dx.doi.org/10.7771/2159-6670.1105

This paper is open access.

Canadian nanotechnology commercialization efforts: patents and a new facility

Nanotech Security, a Vancouver-area business focused on anti-counterfeiting strategies which has been featured here a number of times, has secured two patents according to a May 30, 2015 news item on Nanotechnology Now,

Nanotech Security Corp. (TSXV: NTS) (OTCQX: NTSFF), announced that the Company has been granted two patents; one from the United States Patent and Trademark Office and one from the European Patent Office. The Company continues to expand the protection of its technology with the addition of these patents to its intellectual property portfolio.

Clint Landrock, Nanotech Chief Technology officer, commented, “We are pleased to be granted these additional patents as they further solidify our hold on the next generation of authentication technologies for the banknote, branding and secure document industries.”

Notech Security’s May 27, 2015 news release, which originated the news item, provides more details about the technology being patented,

Based on these patents the Company has launched “Pearl”, our first foray in plasmonic full colour images.  A nano array image of Vermeer’s famous painting “Girl with a Pearl Earring”, which brilliantly displays her ruby lips, blue scarf and bright white collar and features two distinct authentication viewing modes in one feature.  The user can view the full colour image in both transmission and reflection (shining a light on or through the image) – an effect impossible for a hologram to achieve.  …

Here’s Pearl,

NanotechSecurityPeral

Courtesy Nanotech Security

The news release goes on,

Doug Blakeway, Nanotech Chief Executive Officer, commented, “An initial showing of Pearl to the banknote industry came back with comments of having never seen such a bright visual effect in a security device.”  Immediate interest in Pearl has initiated discussions with issuing authorities.

EPO No. 2,563,602 names Charles MacPherson as the inventor.  The patent covers layered optically variable devices (“OVDs”) such as colour shift foils that uniquely employs additional interactivity using piezoelectric layers to activate the authentication mode of a security device used as threads in products such as banknotes, passports and secure packaging.  This patented multi-layered thin film technology offers Nanotech a competitive edge in the development of colour shifting security devices.

USPTO No. 9,013,272 names Dr. Bozena Kaminska and Clint Landrock as co-inventors.  Building on patents previously granted to Nanotech, this patent secures integral intellectual property, which covers a range of diffractive and plasmonic luminescent devices such as security features used in banknotes.

Nano facility in Alberta

Presumably this Canadian federal government announcement about funding for a nanotechnology facility at the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology (NAIT) is in anticipation of a Fall 2015 election (from a May 31, 2015 news item on Nanotechnology Now,

Today [Friday, May 29, 2015], the Honourable Michelle Rempel, Minister of State for Western Economic Diversification, announced $1.5 million in funding to support the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology (NAIT) in establishing a centre that will allow small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to test, develop, and commercialize micro- and nano-coated products.

A May 29, 2015 Western Economic Diversification Canada news release on MarketWired expands on the theme,

Federal funding will enable NAIT to purchase specialized coating handling and blasting equipment, a spray booth, cutting machines, compressors, and to upgrade the facility’s ventilation system and power supply.

The facility, which is also receiving support from MesoCoat Technology Canada, will operate within the existing Nanotechnology Centre for Applied Research, Industry Training and Services (nanoCARTS), and is expected to benefit a wide range of sectors including oil and gas, surface technology and engineering.

Quick Facts

  • Since 2006, the federal government has invested more than $13 billion in new funding in all facets of the innovation ecosystem including advanced research, research infrastructure, talent development, and business innovation.
  • NAIT’s nanoCARTS provides industry with prototyping, product enhancement, testing and characterization services related to nano and micro technology. The new facility will help to expand nanoCARTS’ range of services available to SMEs.
  • NAIT has the expertise in rapid prototyping, materials testing, manufacturing, training and mechanical design to help companies develop and commercialize new products.

Quotes

“Our Government understands that technology advancements help increase Western Canada’s competitive advantage. By investing in the establishment of this new micro- and nano-coated product development centre, we are demonstrating our commitment to supporting jobs and economic growth.”

  • The Honourable Michelle Rempel, Minister of State for Western Economic Diversification

“Applied research is essential in NAIT’s role as a leading polytechnic. This investment strengthens our ability to work with industry to solve their real-world problems. This ultimately helps them to be competitive and innovative. I would like to thank the Government of Canada for its investment.”

  • Dr. Glenn Feltham, President and CEO, NAIT

“We are grateful to the Government of Canada for their financial and strategic support, which has been instrumental in establishing this centre at NAIT. The applied research we are carrying out has the potential to extend the lifespan of piping used in oil production and save billions of dollars in downtime and replacement costs. Wear-resistant clad pipes being developed at this centre are expected to make oil production safer, more efficient and more affordable.”

  • Stephen Goss, CEO, MesoCoat Technology Canada

That would seem to be the sum total of the Canadian commercialization effort at the moment. It contrasts somewhat with the US White House and its recently announced new initiatives to commercialize nanotechnology (see my May 27, 2015 post for a list).

Preventing deep bone infections with antibiotic-laced polymer layers in implants

I know someone who suffered a deep bone infection after some dental work. Devastatingly, she lost bone material as a consequence and it took years, more than one surgery, and multiple sessions in a hyperbaric chamber to recover, more or less.

While my friend’s infection was due to a dental procedure, the work at the University of Sheffield’s (UK) School of Clinical Dentistry, if successful, will help eliminate incidents of deep bone infection from one potential source, implants. From a May 28, 2015 news item on Azonano,

Leading scientists at the University of Sheffield have discovered nanotechnology could hold the key to preventing deep bone infections, after developing a treatment which prevents bacteria and other harmful microorganisms growing.

The pioneering research, led by the University of Sheffield’s School of Clinical Dentistry, showed applying small quantities of antibiotic to the surface of medical devices, from small dental implants to hip replacements, could protect patients from serious infection.

A May 27, 2015 University of Sheffield press release, which originated the news item, provides more information but few details about how this work is nanotechnology-enabled,

Scientists used revolutionary nanotechnology to work on small polymer layers inside implants which measure between 1 and 100 nanometers (nm) – a human hair is approximately 100,000 nm wide.

Lead researcher Paul Hatton, Professor of Biomaterials Sciences at the University of Sheffield, said: “Microorganisms can attach themselves to implants or replacements during surgery and once they grab onto a non-living surface they are notoriously difficult to treat which causes a lot of problems and discomfort for the patient.

“By making the actual surface of the hip replacement or dental implant inhospitable to these harmful microorganisms, the risk of deep bone infection is substantially reduced.

“Our research shows that applying small quantities of antibiotic to a surface between the polymer layers which make up each device could prevent not only the initial infection but secondary infection – it is like getting between the layers of an onion skin.”

Bone infection affects thousands of patients every year and results in a substantial cost to the NHS.

Treating the surface of medical devices would have a greater impact on patients considered at high risk of infection such as trauma victims from road traffic collisions or combat operations, and those who have had previous bone infections.

Professor Hatton added: “Deep bone infections associated with medical devices are increasing in number, especially among the elderly.

“As well as improving the quality of life, this new application for nanotechnology could save health providers such as the NHS millions of pounds every year.”

Here’s a link to and a citation for the paper,

Functionalised nanoscale coatings using layer-by-layer assembly for imparting antibacterial properties to polylactide-co-glycolide surfaces by Piergiorgio Gentile, ,Maria E. Frongia, Mar Cardellach, Cheryl A. Miller, Graham P. Stafford, Graham J. Leggettc, & Paul V. Hatton. Acta Biomaterialia Volume 21, 15 July 2015, Pages 35–43 doi: 10.1016/j.actbio.2015.04.009

This paper is behind a paywall.

Nanopollution of marine life

Concerns are being raised about nanosunscreens and nanotechnology-enabled marine paints and their effect on marine life, specifically, sea urchins. From a May 13, 2015 news item on Nanowerk (Note: A link has been removed),

Nanomaterials commonly used in sunscreens and boat-bottom paints are making sea urchin embryos more vulnerable to toxins, according to a study from the University of California, Davis [UC Davis]. The authors said this could pose a risk to coastal, marine and freshwater environments.

The study, published in the journal Environmental Science and Technology (“Copper Oxide and Zinc Oxide Nanomaterials Act as Inhibitors of Multidrug Resistance Transport in Sea Urchin Embryos: Their Role as Chemosensitizers”), is the first to show that the nanomaterials work as chemosensitizers. In cancer treatments, a chemosensitizer makes tumor cells more sensitive to the effects of chemotherapy.

Similarly, nanozinc and nanocopper made developing sea urchin embryos more sensitive to other chemicals, blocking transporters that would otherwise defend them by pumping toxins out of cells.

A May 12, 2015 UC Davis news release, which originated the news item, includes some cautions,

Nanozinc oxide is used as an additive in cosmetics such as sunscreens, toothpastes and beauty products. Nanocopper oxide is often used for electronics and technology, but also for antifouling paints, which prevent things like barnacles and mussels from attaching to boats.

“At low levels, both of these nanomaterials are nontoxic,” said co-author Gary Cherr, professor and interim director of the UC Davis Bodega Marine Laboratory, and an affiliate of the UC Davis Coastal Marine Sciences Institute. “However, for sea urchins in sensitive life stages, they disrupt the main defense mechanism that would otherwise protect them from environmental toxins.”

Science for safe design

Nanomaterials are tiny chemical substances measured in nanometers, which are about 100,000 times smaller than the diameter of a human hair. Nano-sized particles can enter the body through the skin, ingestion, or inhalation. They are being rapidly introduced across the fields of electronics, medicine and technology, where they are being used to make energy efficient batteries, clean up oil spills, and fight cancer, among many other uses. However, relatively little is known about nanomaterials with respect to the environment and health.

Here’s a link to and a citation for the paper,

Copper Oxide and Zinc Oxide Nanomaterials Act as Inhibitors of Multidrug Resistance Transport in Sea Urchin Embryos: Their Role as Chemosensitizers by Bing Wu, Cristina Torres-Duarte, Bryan J. Cole, and Gary N. Cherr. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2015, 49 (9), pp 5760–5770 DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.5b00345 Publication Date (Web): April 7, 2015

Copyright © 2015 American Chemical Society

This paper is behind a paywall.

While this research into nanoparticles as chemosensitizers is, according to UC Davis, the first of its kind, the concern over nanosunscreens and marine waters has been gaining traction over the last few years. For example, there’s  research featured in a June 10, 2013 article by Roberta Kwok for the University of Washington’s ‘Conservation This Week’ magazine,

Sunscreen offers protection from UV rays, reduces the risk of skin cancer, and even slows down signs of aging. Unfortunately, researchers have found that sunscreen also pollutes the ocean.

Although people have been using these products for decades, “the effect of sunscreens, as a source of introduced chemicals to the coastal marine system, has not yet been addressed,” a research team writes in PLOS ONE. Sunscreens contain chemicals not only for UV protection, but also for coloring, fragrance, and texture. And beaches are becoming ever-more-popular vacation spots; for example, nearly 10 million tourists visited Majorca Island in the Mediterranean Sea in 2010.

Here’s a link to the 2013 PLOS ONE paper,

Sunscreen Products as Emerging Pollutants to Coastal Waters by Antonio Tovar-Sánchez, David Sánchez-Quiles, Gotzon Basterretxea, Juan L. Benedé, Alberto Chisvert, Amparo Salvador, Ignacio Moreno-Garrido, and Julián Blasco. PLOS ONE DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065451 Published: June 5, 2013

This is an open access journal.

Netting oil spills the nano way

Given current local events (April 8, 2015 oil spill in English Bay of 2700 litres (or more) of fuel in Vancouver, Canada), this news item about a mesh useful for oil cleanups seems quite timely. From an April 15, 2015 news item on ScienceDaily,

The unassuming piece of stainless steel mesh in a lab at The Ohio State University doesn’t look like a very big deal, but it could make a big difference for future environmental cleanups.

Water passes through the mesh but oil doesn’t, thanks to a nearly invisible oil-repelling coating on its surface.

In tests, researchers mixed water with oil and poured the mixture onto the mesh. The water filtered through the mesh to land in a beaker below. The oil collected on top of the mesh, and rolled off easily into a separate beaker when the mesh was tilted.

The mesh coating is among a suite of nature-inspired nanotechnologies under development at Ohio State and described in two papers in the journal Nature Scientific Reports. Potential applications range from cleaning oil spills to tracking oil deposits underground.

An April 15, 2015 Ohio State University news release (also on EurekAlert*) by Pam Frost Gorder, which originated the news item, expands on the theme (unusually I’ve left the links undisturbed),

“If you scale this up, you could potentially catch an oil spill with a net,” said Bharat Bhushan, Ohio Eminent Scholar and Howard D. Winbigler Professor of mechanical engineering at Ohio State.

The work was partly inspired by lotus leaves, whose bumpy surfaces naturally repel water but not oil. To create a coating that did the opposite, Bhushan and postdoctoral researcher Philip Brown chose to cover a bumpy surface with a polymer embedded with molecules of surfactant—the stuff that gives cleaning power to soap and detergent.

They sprayed a fine dusting of silica nanoparticles onto the stainless steel mesh to create a randomly bumpy surface and layered the polymer and surfactant on top.

The silica, surfactant, polymer, and stainless steel are all non-toxic and relatively inexpensive, said Brown. He estimated that a larger mesh net could be created for less than a dollar per square foot.

Because the coating is only a few hundred nanometers (billionths of a meter) thick, it is mostly undetectable. To the touch, the coated mesh doesn’t feel any bumpier than uncoated mesh. The coated mesh is a little less shiny, though, because the coating is only 70 percent transparent.

The researchers chose silica in part because it is an ingredient in glass, and they wanted to explore this technology’s potential for creating smudge-free glass coatings. At 70 percent transparency, the coating could work for certain automotive glass applications, such as mirrors, but not most windows or smartphone surfaces.

“Our goal is to reach a transparency in the 90-percent range,” Bhushan said. “In all our coatings, different combinations of ingredients in the layers yield different properties. The trick is to select the right layers.”

He explains that combinations of layers yield nanoparticles that bind to oil instead of repelling it. Such particles could be used to detect oil underground or aid removal in the case of oil spills.

The shape of the nanostructures plays a role, as well. In another project, research assistant Dave Maharaj is investigating what happens when a surface is made of nanotubes. Rather than silica, he experiments with molybdenum disulfide nanotubes, which mix well with oil. The nanotubes are approximately a thousand times smaller than a human hair.

Maharaj measured the friction on the surface of the nanotubes, and compressed them to test how they would hold up under pressure.

“There are natural defects in the structure of the nanotubes,” he said. “And under high loads, the defects cause the layers of the tubes to peel apart and create a slippery surface, which greatly reduces friction.”

Bhushan envisions that the molybdenum compound’s compatibility with oil, coupled with its ability to reduce friction, would make it a good additive for liquid lubricants. In addition, for micro- and nanoscale devices, commercial oils may be too sticky to allow for their efficient operation. Here, he suspects that the molybdenum nanotubes alone could be used to reduce friction.

This work began more than 10 years ago, when Bhushan began building and patenting nano-structured coatings that mimic the texture of the lotus leaf. From there, he and his team have worked to amplify the effect and tailor it for different situations.

“We’ve studied so many natural surfaces, from leaves to butterfly wings and shark skin, to understand how nature solves certain problems,” Bhushan said. “Now we want to go beyond what nature does, in order to solve new problems.”

“Nature reaches a limit of what it can do,” agreed Brown. “To repel synthetic materials like oils, we need to bring in another level of chemistry that nature doesn’t have access to.”

This work was partly funded by the American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund, the National Science Foundation, and Dexerials Corporation (formerly a chemical division of Sony Corp.) in Japan.

Here are links to and citations for the papers,

Mechanically durable, superoleophobic coatings prepared by layer-by-layer technique for anti-smudge and oil-water separation by Philip S. Brow & Bharat Bhushan. Scientific Reports 5, Article number: 8701 doi:10.1038/srep08701 Published 03 March 2015

Nanomechanical behavior of MoS2 and WS2 multi-walled nanotubes and Carbon nanohorns by Dave Maharaj, & Bharat Bhushan. Scientific Reports 5, Article number: 8539 doi:10.1038/srep08539 Published 23 February 2015

Both papers are open access.

* EurekAlert link added Apr.16, 2015 at 1300 PST.

Improving firearm performance with Duralar, a diamond-based coating

A metal and diamond-based coating, Duralar,used to give metal better hardness and durability is also good for guns. I checked a few times and the April 1, 2015 news item on Azonano does not appear to be an April Fool’s joke,

ProtoTactical, a Tucson-area manufacturer of firearms and firearm components has discovered a new way to significantly improve their firearm performance — by applying a special nanotechnology coating called Duralar™. Duralar is an advanced, diamond-based coating that is being used in a variety of industries to enhance metal hardness and durability — and to provide other qualities as well.

Confirming the unlikelihood of this news being a joke is a March 31, 2015 Duralar Coatings news release about the coating and guns,

“Our use of Duralar coatings began as an experiment,” said Gary Palese, president of ProTactical. “I coated a few standard AR-15 trigger parts, mainly to check out the increased durability and wear resistance. But I got a nice surprise and an interesting bonus…”

“As soon as we installed a Duralar-coated trigger and dry-fired the weapon we immediately discovered that the trigger action was significantly smoother. Customers who tried it were amazed at the difference between the coated and uncoated triggers. They were certain that we must have changed the springs or reground the edges, or something! But the only difference was Duralar.”

“Because Duralar is a carbon-based material it has a natural, dry lubricity,” explained Andrew Tudhope, president of Duralar North America. “In firearm applications this means smoother action, less friction and no need for liquid lubricants, which can collect dirt and cause jamming. So, when you combine the intrinsic lubricity with Duralar’s hardness and increased wear and scratch resistance, it gives gun manufacturers a very useful suite of performance features.”

Sex appeal

Gary Palese is also pleased with another Duralar feature, which he calls “sex appeal!”  “Duralar coating gives metals a unique pearlescent gray-black surface that is very tactical and ‘stealthy’ looking — which many of our customers find very sexy! So, because of its hardness and attractive appearance, I’m going to start using Duralar to coat our line of custom knife blades, as well.”

Introduced by Duralar Technologies in 2012, Duralar is an advanced, uniquely structured nanocomposite coating that blends metal and diamond-based components to achieve exceptional hardness, toughness, strength and a spectrum of performance qualities. It is comprised of multiple layers that can be configured in multiple ways to address different applications. Because of its many features Duralar is finding use in an ever-widening range of metal-coating applications. In addition to hardness, durability and lubricity the coatings also provide excellent corrosion and erosion resistance, and they are environmentally friendly, as well.

About Duralar Technologies

Duralar Technologies is a global nanotechnology company and developer of the state-of-the-art Duralar family of ultra-hard coatings. The diamond-based next-generation products are designed to replace hard chrome plating, thermal spray and other previous generations of hard coatings in a broad range of industries including oil & gas, automotive, pulp & paper and aerospace. The company sells and supports Duralar’s coating technology as well as the systems, precursors and materials used in the Duralar coating process. In addition, Duralar Technologies provides Duralar coating services for selected customers. The company’s U.S. headquarters are located in Marana, AZ. European headquarters are in Bedizzole, Italy. The company has additional facilities and offices in Brazil, Mexico and the U.S. For more information, visit www.duralar.com.

About ProtoTactical

ProtoTactical LLC, based in Marana, AZ, is a precision machine shop and manufacturer of AR-style firearms and accessories under its own name as well as for other firearms companies across the U.S. and around the world. The company specializes in reliability at an affordable price, delivering unique product solutions as well as tried-and-true designs. With its rapid prototyping, design and manufacturing capabilities ProtoTactical is able to supply virtually any firearm or component in-house and respond quickly to customer needs. ProtoTactical is a division of ProtoTech, a full-service product development and high-precision machine shop. Established in 1995, ProtoTech is a respected member of Tucson’s advanced technology industry, supplying quality precision parts worldwide. For more information, visit www.prototactical.com.

I found this about the coating technology on Duralar Coatings’ Advanced Technology webpage (Note: Links have been removed),

Duralar is a proprietary and uniquely structured new nanocomposite coating that blends metal and diamond-based components to achieve exceptional hardness, toughness, strength and a broad range of performance qualities. It is comprised of multiple layers that can be configured in different ways to address different applications. The multiple layers are also effective for eliminating microcracks in the coating and blocking other problems like corrosion.

Because Duralar is not a sprayed coating it does not have the limitations that are usually associated with line-of-sight application. Instead, Duralar is highly conformal and uniform, which makes it well suited to coating three-dimensional features. It gives very consistent coverage, even on screw threads and intricately shaped features which can be challenging for other coating methods.

Also, Duralar does not require extremely high deposition temperatures, so it does not alter the morphology of substrates and works well on a broad range of substrate materials. At present Duralar technology is primarily designed to coat conductive substrates; in the future it may also be used on plastics and other materials.

Duralar offers this image of diamonds to illustrate their point,

Duralar is a nanocomposite blend of metal and diamond components.

Duralar is a nanocomposite blend of metal and diamond components.

Nano-Clear® makes lifeboats glossy for Carnival Cruise Lines

A Feb. 9, 2015 news item on Azonano profiles Carnival Cruise Lines and a deal the company has struck with Nanovere Technologies,

Carnival Cruise Lines implementing Nano-Clear® Coatings to restore their entire fleet of lifeboats.

Ship owners and operators spend a great deal of money and time maintaining their vessels and lifeboats to the highest quality standards, but are often let down by poor appearance. Conventional marine paints and gel coatings are highly susceptible to UV damage, causing the surface to oxidize and loose color over time. Lifeboats are designed to have a bright and glossy appearance for improved safety and visibility, but become dull and less visible over time due to UV damage.

 

A Feb. 7, 2015 Nanovere Technologies press release, which originated the news item, provides more details,

In late 2014, Nanotech Marine Services, based in the UK conducted a field application trial aboard the Queen Elizabeth Ship using Nano-Clear® Coatings manufactured by Nanovere Technologies in Brighton, MI USA. The purpose of the trial was to provide a long-term solution to the gel-coat oxidation issue on the ships lifeboats and tenders, as the orange gel-coat on these vessels are continually exposed to high levels of UV and fade rapidly. This paint oxidation issue has proven to be difficult to overcome including continuous polishing of the surface or a costly new paint job.

Nano-Clear® Coating was applied to the gel-coat surface and left to weather for several months aboard the Queen Elizabeth while operating in the Mediterranean. The field trial represented real world conditions and proved that a polished surface using the traditional cut-and-polish approach, fails surprisingly fast when exposed to harmful UV rays. The test patches coated with Nano-Clear® Coating showed “no” deterioration in gloss or color; as compared with the surrounding area showing a dull surface that will continue to oxidize over time.

Due to the outstanding success of the Nano-Clear® trials on the Queen Elizabeth, Nanotech Marine secured the restoration of 18 lifeboats aboard Queen Victoria. Carnival Cruise Lines is also implementing Nano-Clear® Coatings to restore their entire fleet of lifeboats starting with 26 aboard the Cruise Ship Azura in 2015. Nano-Clear® Coatings provide ship operators, maintenance yards and super yacht owners with a tested and practical solution to restore and maintain high value assets to the highest gloss level for many years.

Nano Clear is the only marine coating in the global market place to enhance, restore and extend the service life of newly painted or highly oxidized painted surfaces by 10 years. Nano-Clear® penetrates deep into the smallest pores of paint, enhancing the underlying color, dramatically improving gloss, scratch resistance, corrosion resistance and extending UV resistance, while reducing surface cleaning by 50%. Nano-Clear® eliminates the need to re-paint, color match or polish gel-coatings, thereby reducing material, labor and maintenance costs.

Nano-Clear® Coatings have been validated by leading global organizations including the US Army, Carnival Cruise Lines, Princimar Chemical Carriers, Toshiba Industrial Products and leading tank car manufactures. To learn more about Nano-Clear® Coatings, please email info@nanocoatings.com, visit www.nanocoatings.com or call (810) 227-0077.

Here’s an image illustrating the pre-NanoClear- and post-NanoClear-coated lifeboats,

Courtesy: Nanovere Technologies

Courtesy: Nanovere Technologies

I last wrote about Nanovere Technologies in a Jan. 2, 2013 post about automotive plastics.

Philippe Starck’s luggage goes nano

For anyone unfamiliar with Philippe Starck, there’s this from his Wikipedia entry (Note: Links have been removed),

Philippe Starck is a French designer[1] who has become widely known since the start of his career in the 1980s[2] for his interior, product, industrial and architectural design work.

A minimalist, Starck’s work is ‘stark’. In an interesting publicity campaign, his latest collection of travel gear is mentioned in a Feb. 4, 2015 news item on Nanotechnology Now,

In association with Philippe Starck, renowned French creator, designer and architect, DELSEY is reinventing the world of travel with the launch of STARCKTRIP, a new collection of luggage conceived on a single concept: intelligence in motion. Bold, original and innovative, leaving the fickle constraints of fashion behind to embrace timelessness.

The launch for this line was originally announced in an Oct. 9, 2014 Starck press release which includes a bit about the nanotechnology-enabled features of this luggage,

HIGH TECH DISCRETION
The materials used take advantage of the latest technological innovations but manage to be discrete about it. Nanotechnology is used to protect the bags and
cases, inside and out, from dirt and bacteria; fabric screens also protect against data theft; gentle plastic moulded material provides unparalleled rolling comfort, smoothness and silence. In addition, anti-rain treatment of the surfaces ensures that you, the business traveller, keep your belongings dry at all times. [emphases mine]

I’m not sure about the dirt but the protection from bacteria makes it sound like they’ve added nanoscale silver to the luggage and the anti-rain treatment sounds like a nanotechnology-enabled superhydrophobic coating of some kind. Unfortunately there are no details to be had on either Philippe Starck’s website or on the Delsey website. BTW, the middle-aged male model in the Starck press release, is M. Philippe Starck himself.

India’s S. R. Vadera and Narendra Kumar (Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur) review stealth and camouflage technology

Much of the military nanotechnology information I stumble across is from the US, Canada, and/or Europe and while S. R. Vadera and Narendra Kumar (of India’s Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur [DLJ]) do offer some information about India’s military nanotechnology situation, they focus largely on the US, Canada, and Europe. Happily, their Jan. 30, 2014 Nanowerk Spotlight 6 pp. article titled, Nanotechnology and nanomaterials for camouflage and stealth applications offers a comprehensive review of the field,

This article briefly describes how nanomaterials and nanotechnology can be useful in the strategic area of camouflage and stealth technology. …

The word camouflage has its origin in the French word camoufler which means to disguise. In English dictionary, the word meaning was initially referred to concealment or disguise of military objects in order to prevent detection by the enemy. In earlier days, specifically before 20th century, the only sensor available to detect was human eye and so camouflage was confined to the visible light only. The rapid development of sensor technology outside the visible range has forced to use new definition and terminologies for camouflage.

Modern definition of camouflage may be given as “delay or deny detection of a military target by detectors operating over multispectral wavelength region of electromagnetic spectrum or non-electromagnetic radiation e.g., acoustic, magnetic, etc. Multispectral camouflage, low-observability, countermeasures, signature management, and stealth technology are some of the new terminologies used now instead of camouflage.

In modern warfare, stealth technology is applied mostly to aircrafts and combat weapons. Stealth technology can improve the survivability and performance of aircrafts and weapons to gain the upper hand. Stealth technology involves the minimization of acoustic, optical, infra-red, and electromagnetic signatures. Among them, the minimization of electromagnetic signature, particularly in microwave region, is the most important. It can be realized in several ways which include stealth shaping design, radar absorbing material (RAM), and radar absorbing structures (RAS)1.

Unexpectedly, there are multiple reference to Canadian stealth and camouflage technology all of them courtesy of one company, HyperStealth Biotechnology Corp. based in Maple Ridge, BC, Canada. mentioned in my Jan. 7, 2013 post about an invisibility cloak.

Getting back to the article, the authors have this to say about the international ‘stealth scene’,

Today virtually every nation and many non-state military organizations have access to advanced tactical sensors for target acquisition (radar and thermal imagers) and intelligence gathering surveillance systems (ground and air reconnaissance). Precision-guided munitions exist that can be delivered by artillery, missiles, and aircraft and that can operate in the IR [infra red] region of the electromagnetic spectrum. These advanced imaging sights and sensors allow enemies to acquire and engage targets through visual smoke, at night, and under adverse weather conditions.

To combat these new sensing and detection technologies, camouflage paint, paint additives, tarps, nets and foams have been developed for visual camouflage and thermal and radar signature suppression. …

One comment, thermal and radar signature suppression sounds like another way of saying ‘invisibility cloak’.

The authors also had something to say about the application of nanomaterials/nanotechnology,

Nanotechnology has significant influence over a set of many interrelated core skills of land forces like protection, engagement, detection, movements, communications and information collection together with interrelated warfare strategies. Additionally, nanotechnology also has its role in the development of sensor for warfare agents, tagging and tracking and destruction of CBRN [chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear] warfare agents, besides many other possible applications.

There’s a very interesting passage on ‘stealth coatings’ which includes this,

These new coatings can be attached to a wide range of surfaces and are the first step towards developing ‘shape shifting clothing’ capable of adapting to the environment around it. …

In another example, an Israeli company, Nanoflight has claimed to develop a new nano paint, which can make it near impossible to detect objects painted with the material. The company is continuing their efforts to extend the camouflage action of these paints in infrared region as well. BASF, Germany (uses polyisocynate dendrimer nanoparticles) and Isotronic Corporation, USA are among the very few agencies coming up with chemical agent resistant and innovative camouflage (CARC) coatings using nanomaterials. In India, paints developed by Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur (DLJ) using polymeric nanocomposites, nanometals and nanometal complexes are perhaps the first examples of multispectral camouflage paints tested in VIS-NIR and thermal infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum at system level. The nanocomposites developed by DLJ provide excellent scope for the tuning of reflectance properties both in visible and near infrared region6 of electromagnetic spectrum leading to their applications on military targets (Fig. 4).

For anyone interested in this topic, I recommend reading the article in its entirety.

One final note, I found this Wikipedia entry about the DLJ, (Note: A link has been removed)

Defence Laboratory (DLJ) is westernmost located, an strategically important laboratory of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).

Its mission is development of Radio Communication Systems, Data links, Satellite Communication Systems, Millimeter Wave Communication systems. There are two divisions in laboratory

NRMA (Nuclear Radiation’s Management and Applications) Division
Camouflage Division

That’s all folks!