Category Archives: coatings

A de-icer and a preventative for airplane wings from Rice University

I last mentioned this graphene-based work (from James Tour at Rice University in Texas, US) on de-icing not just airplane wings but also windshields, skyscrapers and more in a Sept. 17, 2014 posting. The latest study indicates the technology could be used as a preventative according to a May 23, 2016 news item on phys.org,

Rice University scientists have advanced their graphene-based de-icer to serve a dual purpose. The new material still melts ice from wings and wires when conditions get too cold. But if the air is above 7 degrees Fahrenheit, ice won’t form at all.

A May 23, 2016 Rice University news release (also on EurekAlert), which originated the news item, goes on to describe the work in more detail,

The Rice lab of chemist James Tour gave its de-icer superhydrophobic (water-repelling) capabilities that passively prevent water from freezing above 7 degrees. The tough film that forms when the de-icer is sprayed on a surface is made of atom-thin graphene nanoribbons that are conductive, so the material can also be heated with electricity to melt ice and snow in colder conditions.

The material can be spray-coated, making it suitable for large applications like aircraft, power lines, radar domes and ships, according to the researchers. …

“We’ve learned to make an ice-resistant material for milder conditions in which heating isn’t even necessary, but having the option is useful,” Tour said. “What we now have is a very thin, robust coating that can keep large areas free of ice and snow in a wide range of conditions.”

Tour, lead authors Tuo Wang, a Rice graduate student, and Yonghao Zheng, a Rice postdoctoral researcher, and their colleagues tested the film on glass and plastic.

Materials are superhydrophobic if they have a water-contact angle larger than 150 degrees. The term refers to the angle at which the surface of the water meets the surface of the material. The greater the beading, the higher the angle. An angle of 0 degrees is basically a puddle, while a maximum angle of 180 degrees defines a sphere just touching the surface.

The Rice films use graphene nanoribbons modified with a fluorine compound to enhance their hydrophobicity. They found that nanoribbons modified with longer perfluorinated chains resulted in films with a higher contact angle, suggesting that the films are tunable for particular conditions, Tour said.

Warming test surfaces to room temperature and cooling again had no effect on the film’s properties, he said.

The researchers discovered that below 7 degrees, water would condense within the structure’s pores, causing the surface to lose both its superhydrophobic and ice-phobic properties. At that point, applying at least 12 volts of electricity warmed them enough to retain its repellant properties.

Applying 40 volts to the film brought it to room temperature, even if the ambient temperature was 25 degrees below zero. Ice allowed to form at that temperature melted after 90 seconds of resistive heating.

The researchers found that while effective, the de-icing mode did not remove water completely, as some remained trapped in the pores between linked nanoribbon bundles. Adding a lubricant with a low melting point (minus 61 degrees F) to the film made the surface slippery, sped de-icing and saved energy.

Here’s a link to and a citation for the paper,

Passive Anti-icing and Active Deicing Films by Tuo Wang, Yonghao Zheng, Abdul-Rahman O. Raji, Yilun Li, William K.A. Sikkema, and James M. Tour. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, Just Accepted Manuscript DOI: 10.1021/acsami.6b03060 Publication Date (Web): May 18, 2016

Copyright © 2016 American Chemical Society

This paper is behind a paywall.

Extreme water repellency achieved by combining nanostructured surfaces with Leidenfrost effect

Apparently a new twist has been added to the water repellency story. From a May 17, 2016 news item on ScienceDaily,

What do you get if you combine nanotextured ‘Cassie’ surfaces with the Leidenfrost effect? Highly water-repellent surfaces that show potential for developing future self-cleaning windows, windshields, exterior paints and more [sic]

Combining superhydrophobic surfaces with Leidenfrost levitation–picture a water droplet hovering over a hot surface rather than making physical contact with it–has been explored extensively for the past decade by researchers hoping to uncover the holy grail of water-repellent surfaces.

A May 17, 2016 American Institute of Physics news release on EurekAlert, which originated the news item, provides more detail about the work,

In a new twist, a group of South Korean researchers from Seoul National University and Dankook University report an anomalous water droplet-bouncing phenomenon generated by Leidenfrost levitation on nanotextured surfaces in Applied Physics Letters, from AIP Publishing.

“Wettability plays a key role in determining the equilibrium contact angles, contact angle hysteresis, and adhesion between a solid surface and liquid, as well as the retraction process of a liquid droplet impinged on the surface,” explained Doo Jin Lee, lead author, and a postdoctoral researcher in the Department of Materials and Engineering at Seoul National University.

Nonwetting surfaces tend to be created by one of two methods. “First, textured surfaces enable nonwettability because a liquid can’t penetrate into the micro- or nano-features, thanks to air entrapment between asperities on the textured materials,” Lee said.

Or, second, the Leidenfrost effect “can help produce a liquid droplet dancing on a hot surface by floating it on a cushion of its own vapor,” he added. “The vapor film between the droplet and heated surface allows the droplet to bounce off the surface–also known as the ‘dynamic Leidenfrost phenomenon.'”

Lee and colleagues developed a special “nonwetting, nanotextured surface” so they could delve into the dynamic Leidenfrost effect’s impact on the material.

“Our nanotextured surface was verified to be ‘nonwetting’ via thermodynamic analysis,” Lee elaborated. “This analytical approach shows that the water droplet isn’t likely to penetrate into the surface’s nanoholes, which is advantageous for designing nonwetting, water-repellant systems. And the water droplet bouncing was powered by the synergetic combination of the nonwetting surface–often called a ‘Cassie surface’–and the Leidenfrost effect.”

By comparing the hydrophobic surface and nanotextured surface, the group discovered that enhanced water droplet bouncing was created by the combined impact of the Leidenfrost levitation and the nonwetting Cassie state.

“A thermodynamic approach predicts the nonwettability on the nanotextured surface, and a scaling law between the capillary and vapor pressure of the droplet explains the mechanism of the dynamic Leidenfrost phenomenon,” said Lee.

These findings should “be of value for a wide range of research areas, such as the study of nonwetting surfaces by the Leidenfrost effect and nanotextured features, enhanced liquid droplet bouncing, and film boiling of liquid droplets on heated Cassie surfaces,” he added.

Significantly, the group’s work furthers the fundamental understanding of the dynamic Leidenfrost droplet levitation and droplet-bouncing phenomena on hydrophobic and nanoengineered surfaces. This means that it will be useful for developing highly water-repellant surfaces for industrial applications such as self-cleaning windows, windshields, exterior paints, anti-fouling coatings, roof tiles, and textiles in the future.

“Our future work will focus on developing multiscale structures with microscale and nanoscale regularities, and explore the nonwetting characteristics of their surfaces with the dynamic Leidenfrost effect,” Lee noted.

Here’s a link to and a citation for the paper,

Anomalous water drop bouncing on a nanotextured surface by the Leidenfrost levitation by Doo Jin Lee and Young Seok Song.  Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 201604 (2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4948769

This paper appears to be open access.

Bacteria and an anti-superbug coating from Ireland’s Sligo Institute of Technology

Unlike today’s (April 28, 2016) earlier piece about dealing with bacteria, the focus for this research is on superbugs and not the bacteria which form biofilm on medical implants and such. An April 21, 2016 news item on RTE News makes the announcement about a new means of dealing with superbugs,

A discovery by a team of scientists in Ireland could stem the spread of deadly superbugs predicted to kill millions of people worldwide over the coming decades.

The research has found an agent that can be baked into everyday items like smart-phones and door handles to combat the likes of MRSA and E. coli.

The nanotechnology has a 99.9 % kill rate of potentially lethal and drug-resistant bacteria, they say.

Lead scientist Professor Suresh C. Pillai, of Sligo Institute of Technology’s Nanotechnology Research Group, says the discovery is the culmination of 12 years work.

“This is a game changer,” he said.

“This breakthrough will change the whole fight against superbugs. It can effectively control the spread of bacteria.”

An April 21, 2016 Sligo Institute of Technology press release provides some context for the work and a few details about the coating,

News of the discovery comes just days after UK Chancellor of the Exchequer George Osborne warned that superbugs could become deadlier than cancer and are on course to kill 10 million people globally by 2050.

Speaking at the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in Washington, Mr Osborne warned that the problem would slash global GDP by around €100 trillion if it was not tackled.

Using nanotechnology, the discovery is an effective and practical antimicrobial solution — an agent that kills microorganisms or inhibits their growth — that can be used to protect a range of everyday items.

Items include anything made from glass, metallics and ceramics including computer or tablet screens, smartphones, ATMs, door handles, TVs, handrails, lifts, urinals, toilet seats, fridges, microwaves and ceramic floor or wall tiles.

It will be of particular use in hospitals and medical facilities which are losing the battle against the spread of killer superbugs.

Other common uses would include in swimming pools and public buildings, on glass in public buses and trains, sneeze guards protecting food in delis and restaurants as well as in clean rooms in the medical sector.

“It’s absolutely wonderful to finally be at this stage. This breakthrough will change the whole fight against superbugs. It can effectvely control the spread of bacteria,” said Prof. Pillai.

He continued: “Every single person has a sea of bacteria on their hands. The mobile phone is the most contaminated personal item that we can have. Bacteria grows on the phone and can live there for up to five months. As it is contaminated with proteins from saliva and from the hand, It’s fertile land for bacteria and has been shown to carry 30 times more bacteria than a toilet seat.”

The research started at Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT)’s CREST and involves scientists now based at IT Sligo, Dublin City University (DCU) and the University of Surrey. Major researchers included Dr Joanna Carroll and Dr Nigel S. Leyland.

It has been funded for the past eight years by John Browne, founder and CEO of Kastus Technologies Ltd, who is bringing the product to a global market. He was also supported by significant investment from Enterprise Ireland.

As there is nothing that will effectively kill antibiotic-resistant superbugs completely from the surface of items, scientists have been searching for a way to prevent the spread.

This has been in the form of building or ‘baking’ antimicrobial surfaces into products during the manufacturing process.

However, until now, all these materials were toxic or needed UV light in order to make them work. This meant they were not practical for indoor use and had limited commercial application.

“The challenge was the preparation of a solution that was activated by indoor light rather than UV light and we have now done that,” said Prof Pillai.

The new water-based solution can be sprayed onto any glass, ceramic or metallic surface during the production process, rendering the surface 99.9 per cent resistant to superbugs like MRSA, E. coli and other fungi. [emphasis mine]

The solution is sprayed on the product — such as a smartphone glass surface — and then ‘baked’ into it, forming a super-hard surface. The coating is transparent, permanent and scratch resistant and actually forms a harder surface than the original glass or ceramic material.

The team first developed the revolutionary material to work on ceramics and has spent the last five years adapting the formula – which is non-toxic and has no harmful bi-products ‑- to make it work on glass and metallic surfaces.

Research is now underway by the group on how to adapt the solution for use in plastics and paint, allowing even wider use of the protective material.

Prof Pillai, Kastus and the team have obtained a US and a UK patent on the unique process with a number of global patent applications pending. It is rare for such an academic scientific discovery to have such commercial viability.

“I was sold on this from the first moment I heard about it. It’s been a long road to here but it was such a compelling story that it was hard to walk away from so I had to see it through to the end,” said John Browne, Kastus CEO.

He continued: “This is a game changer. The uniqueness of antimicrobia surface treatment means that the applications for it in the real world are endless. The multinational glass manufacturers we are in negotiations with to sell the product to have been searching for years to come up with such a solution but have failed.”

If the coating kills 99.9%, doesn’t that mean 0.1% are immune? If that’s the case, won’t they reproduce and eventually establish themselves as a new kind of superbug?

Here’s a link to and a citation for the paper,

Highly Efficient F, Cu doped TiO2 anti-bacterial visible light active photocatalytic coatings to combat hospital-acquired infections by Nigel S. Leyland, Joanna Podporska-Carroll, John Browne, Steven J. Hinder, Brid Quilty, & Suresh C. Pillai. Scientific Reports 6, Article number: 24770 (2016) doi:10.1038/srep24770 Published online: 21 April 2016

This paper is open access.

Bacteria and an anti-biofilm coating from Ben Gurion University of the Negev (Israel)

This anti-biofilm acts as an anti-adhesive and is another approach to dealing with unwanted bacteria on medical implants and on marine equipment. From an April 25, 2016 news item about the Israeli research on ScienceDaily,

Researchers at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU) have developed an innovative anti-biofilm coating, which has significant anti-adhesive potential for a variety of medical and industrial applications.

According to the research published in Advanced Materials Interfaces, anti-adhesive patches that are developed from naturally occurring biomaterials can prevent destructive bacterial biofilm from forming on metal surfaces when they are immersed in water and other damp environments.

An April 25, 2016 American Associates Ben Gurion University of the Negev news release (also on EurekAlert), which originated the news item, describes the research further without adding much detail (Note: A link has been removed),

“Our solution addresses a pervasive need to design environmentally friendly materials to impede dangerous surface bacteria growth,” the BGU researchers from the Avram and Stella Goldstein-Goren Department of Biotechnology Engineering explain. “This holds tremendous potential for averting biofilm formed by surface-anchored bacteria and could have a tremendous impact.”

biofouling

Above: SEM micrographs of A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa (PA14), S. marcescens and P.stuartii biofilm architectures. The untreated control surface shows intricate bacteria densely embedded in the matrix. Biofilms were grown statically on the different surfaces.

The anti-adhesive could be used on medical implants, devices and surgical equipment where bacteria can contribute to chronic diseases, resist antibiotic treatment and thereby compromise the body’s defense system. The prevention of aquatic biofouling on ships and bridges is one of the industrial applications.

Here’s a link to and a citation for the paper,

Novel Anti-Adhesive Biomaterial Patches: Preventing Biofilm with Metal Complex Films (MCF) Derived from a Microalgal Polysaccharide by Karina Golberg, Noa Emuna, T. P. Vinod, Dorit van Moppes, Robert S. Marks, Shoshana Malis Arad, and Ariel Kushmaro. Advanced Materials DOI: 10.1002/admi.201500486 Article first published online: 17 MAR 2016

© 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

This article is behind a paywall.

Nanotechnology and vinyl records

A Taipei Times April 17, 2016 article by Chang Chung-yi and Jake Chung announces,

… a recent technological breakthrough in the production of vinyl records might lead to a resurgence in their popularity, especially for audiophiles.

The Taiwan branch of Japanese company Ulvac unveiled samples of its vinyl records — coated in nano-scale molybdenum — at the Hi-End Audio Show in Kaohsiung that opened on Thursday and is to run through today, with more than 200 international brands displaying products at its 80 stalls.

Ulvac demonstrated the technology’s ability to fix common problems that plague vinyl records, such as scratching, poor heat conductivity and susceptibility to static electricity.

Ulvac staff said that the coating helps harden the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) material that records are made of and prevents it from being easily damaged, adding that the coating also allows for more refined sound quality.

Local media reported that the coating was developed by Ulvac Taiwan vice chief executive officer Clare Wei (魏雲祥), who started listening to vinyl records last year.

After discovering the problems associated with the PVC used in the production of records, Wei spent more than NT$150 million (US$4.64 million) on laboratories, equipment and personnel to try to apply the nano-scale coating material on vinyl, the Chinese-language United Daily News reported.

According to one expert, the technology for producing records hadn’t changed since the 1940’s.

NanoMech get $10M investment from Saudi company

This news comes from the US state of Arkansas (not often featured here). The company, NanoMech, seems to be focused on lubricants and coatings according to an April 13, 2013 news release on Business Wire,

NanoMech announced today that it has secured $10 million in capital for leading its Series C Financing round from Saudi Aramco Energy Ventures (SAEV), the corporate venturing subsidiary of Saudi Arabia’s national oil company. This capital infusion and relationship will significantly accelerate NanoMech’s manufacturing, sales and product development. NanoMech uses nanotechnology to develop advanced products for industrial and mechanical applications – such as lubricants, coatings and specialty chemicals. These products have enabled a step change in performance, efficiency and reliability in multiple industries such as energy, transportation, aerospace, manufacturing, automotive, agricultural equipment and military.

An April 11, 2013 NanoMech news release, which originated the item on Business Wire, provides a few more details and some quotes,

“NanoMech is honored to achieve this recognition and investment by the world’s largest energy company,” said NanoMech Chairman and CEO Jim Phillips. “Building on current momentum, NanoMech will use this financing and relationship to expand our global reach, invest in additional sales and marketing resources. We will also increase investment in our market-leading nanotechnology platforms, nGlide, GuardX, TuffTek, and nGuard.”

This capital infusion and relationship will significantly improve NanoMech’s manufacturing, sales and product development. Today’s announcement represents NanoMech’s most significant milestone in the continued validation and authentication of its unique technology.

“Response to NanoMech’s technology at Saudi Aramco and several of our major suppliers has been very positive,” said Cory Steffek, Managing Director, North America for SAEV. “A platform technology like NanoMech’s has significant potential to bring innovation, not only to the energy sector, but also to many other critical industries.”

NanoMech has validated and commercialized its innovations to iconic world-leading businesses and has completed an upgrade of its smart factory and labs. Several Fortune 100 and emerging companies have incorporated NanoMech’s nano-engineered solutions to create high-performance products.

“After more than a decade of extensive research and development, and recent large-scale commercialization successes,” said Dr. Ajay P. Malshe, CTO and Founder of NanoMech. “Our industry is leading disruptive nanoscience and is light years ahead of the competition. We are transforming entire industries.

The big talk is rooted not just in hype but also in a major US government push to commercialize nanotechnology research, which has received billions of dollars in government funding (from the NanoMech news release),

“Aramco’s strategic investment in NanoMech will transform the productivity paradigm for sustainable global energy production,” said Deborah Wince-Smith, CEO of the U.S. Council on Competitiveness and NanoMech board member. “It will accelerate NanoMech’s position as the global leader in advanced nanotechnology.”

Watching paint dry at the nanoscale

When paint dries it separates itself into two layers and according to scientists this may have implications for improving performance in products ranging from paints to beauty and cosmetics. From a March 18, 2016 news item on ScienceDaily,

New research published today in the journal Physical Review Letters has described a new physical mechanism that separates particles according to their size during the drying of wet coatings. The discovery could help improve the performance of a wide variety of everyday goods, from paint to sunscreen.

A March 18, 2016 University of Surrey (England) press release (also on EurekAlert), which originated the news item, provides more details,

Researchers from the University of Surrey [England, UK] in collaboration with the Université Claude Bernard, Lyon [France] used computer simulation and materials experiments to show how when coatings with different sized particles, such as paints dry, the coating spontaneously forms two layers.

This mechanism can be used to control the properties at the top and bottom of coatings independently, which could help increase performance of coatings across industries as diverse as beauty and pharmaceuticals.

Dr Andrea Fortini, of the University of Surrey and lead author explained:

“When coatings such as paint, ink or even outer layers on tablets are made, they work by spreading a liquid containing solid particles onto a surface, and allowing the liquid to evaporate. This is nothing new, but what is exciting is that we’ve shown that during evaporation, the small particles push away the larger ones, remaining at the top surface whilst the larger are pushed to bottom. This happens naturally.”

Dr Fortini continued, “This type of ‘self-layering’ in a coating could be very useful. For example, in a sun screen, most of the sunlight-blocking particles could be designed to push their way to the top, leaving particles that can adhere to the skin near the bottom of the coating. Typically the particles used in coatings have sizes that are 1000 times smaller than the width of a human hair so engineering these coatings takes place at a microscopic level. ”

The team is continuing to work on such research to understand how to control the width of the layer by changing the type and amount of small particles in the coating and explore their use in industrial products such as paints, inks, and adhesives

Here’s a link to and a citation for the paper,

Dynamic Stratification in Drying Films of Colloidal Mixtures by Andrea Fortini, Ignacio Martín-Fabiani, Jennifer Lesage De La Haye, Pierre-Yves Dugas, Muriel Lansalot, Franck D’Agosto, Elodie Bourgeat-Lami, Joseph L. Keddie, and Richard P. Sear. Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 118301 – Published 18 March 2016 DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.118301

© 2016 American Physical Society

This article is behind a paywall.

The world’s blackest coating material

Surrey NanoSystems (UK) is billing their Vantablack as the world’s blackest coating and they now have a new product in that line according to a March 10, 2016 company press release (received via email),

A whole range of products can now take advantage of Vantablack’s astonishing characteristics, thanks to the development of a new spray version of the world’s blackest coating material. The new substance, Vantablack S-VIS, is easily applied at large scale to virtually any surface, whilst still delivering the proven performance of Vantablack.

Vantablack’s nano-structure absorbs virtually all incident light, enabling the performance of precision optical systems to be optimized. The material’s developer, UK-based Surrey NanoSystems, has mimicked the performance of its original Vantablack with a new version that can be sprayed onto objects, rather than deposited using a chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process.

Vantablack S-VIS greatly widens the potential applications space, making it possible to coat larger complex shapes and structures. It is applied at temperatures that are easily withstood by common plastics, further extending its use. Even though the material is applied using a simple spraying process, it traps a massive 99.8% of incident light. This property gives Vantablack S-VIS its ability to make objects appear to be two-dimensional black holes, as it becomes impossible to make out surface topography.

The only other commercially-available material that is darker than the new S-VIS version is original Vantablack, which set a world record for absorption of light at a staggering 99.965%. Vantablack was originally developed for satellite-borne earth observation imaging and calibration systems, where it increases instrument sensitivity by improving absorption of stray ultraviolet, visible and infrared light. Since then, many other applications have emerged, including solar-energy collector elements, functional surfaces in buildings and architecture, cinematographic projectors, high-performance baffles and lenses, and scientific instruments.  Its ability to deceive the eye also opens up a range of design possibilities to enhance styling and appearance in luxury goods and jewellery [emphasis mine].

“The original Vantablack coating has had a big impact on the market, and is helping many companies to bring out higher-performing equipment,” says Ben Jensen of Surrey NanoSystems. “We are continuing to develop the technology, and the new sprayable version really does open up the possibility of applying super-black coatings in many more types of airborne or terrestrial applications. Possibilities include commercial products such as cameras, [emphasis mine] equipment requiring improved performance in a smaller form factor, as well as differentiating the look of products by means of the coating’s unique aesthetic appearance. It’s a major step forward compared with today’s commercial absorber coatings.”

Vantablack S-VIS is so effective that its performance far outstrips that of any other conventionally-applied coating, typically achieving a reflectance of less than 0.2%. Unlike other black absorbers, it offers this exceptional performance across a wide-range of viewing angles and wavelengths, which is critical for optical instruments, as well as in many aesthetic applications. It is, for example, some 17 times less reflective than the super-black paint used for minimizing stray light in the Hubble space telescope.

The active element of Vantablack S-VIS is a carbon nanotube matrix. The coating is applied using a proprietary process that includes a number of pre- and post-application steps to achieve its ultra-low reflectance.

Vantablack S-VIS can be applied to most stable surfaces, with the only major constraint being the ability to withstand temperatures of 100 degrees Centigrade, making Vantablack S-VIS suitable for many types of engineering-grade polymers and composite materials. The process is scalable and suitable for high-volume production on a range of substrate sizes.

The structured surface of Vantablack S-VIS means that it is not recommended for applications where it is subject to physical contact or abrasion. [emphasis mine] Ideally, it should be applied to surfaces that are protected, either within a packaged product, or behind a glass or other protective layer.

Coating with Vantablack S-VIS is offered as a service from Surrey NanoSystems’ processing centre in the UK. It is also available under license to companies wishing to integrate the coating into their production processes.

Presumably Surrey NanoSystems is looking at ways to make its Vantablack S-VIS capable of being used in products such as jewellery, cameras, and other consumers products where physical contact and abrasions are a strong possibility.

Helen Clark has written about Vantablack S-VIS in a March 9, 2016 article, which features an embedded video, for themarshalltown.com.

For the curious, here’s an image of the Vantablack coating,

Courtesy: Surrey NanoSystems

Courtesy: Surrey NanoSystems

A step toward commercializing smart windows with electrochromic film

A Dec. 4, 2015 news item on phys.org has reawakened my dream of electrochromic (smart) windows,

EC [electrochromic] film devices have been hampered in making the move from research to innovation by a number of technical and economic obstacles. EELICON [Enhanced Energy Efficiency and Comfort by Smart Light Transmittance Control] aims to overcome these obstacles by removing equipment limitations, automating processes, and validating a possible high-throughput prototype production process for a cost-effective, high-performance EC film technology.

Retrofitting windows with an electrically dimmable plastic film is a dream that is finally coming close to fruition. According to life cycle assessment studies, considerable energy savings may result when such films are included in architectural glazing, appliance doors, aircraft cabin windows, and vehicle sunroofs; and user comfort is enhanced as well.

The EU [European Union]-funded EELICON (Enhanced Energy Efficiency and Comfort by Smart Light Transmittance Control) project is focusing on an innovative switchable light transmittance technology that was developed in a project previously co-funded by the EU Framework Programmes. The project developed mechanically flexible and light-weight electrochromic (EC) film devices based on a conductive polymer nanocomposite technology with a property profile far beyond the current state-of-the art.

A Dec. 3, 2015 CORDIS (EU Community Research and Development Service) press release, which originated the news item, features an interview with the project coordinator and manager,

Dr. Uwe Posset, project coordinator and Expert Group Manager at ZfAE – Center for Applied Electrochemistry, Fraunhofer ISC, discusses the project’s achievements so far.

Do you have any results to show regarding the objectives that you have defined?

We are indeed working on a demonstration line to roll out a possible production process for electrochromic (EC) films, i.e. plastic films that can change colour upon application of a small voltage. Such films can be used to create smart windows for the control of sunlight and glare in buildings and vehicles. This technology is known to have the potential to save substantial amounts of energy for air conditioning. Darkening the film will decrease heat gain in the interior while maintaining the view through the window. The film provides possibilities to retrofit existing windows.

Do you have results from a life cycle assessment (LCA)?

Yes. The results essentially show that the targeted film technology can be produced with less primary energy than a standard EC window. We are currently working on extending the LCA to demonstrate the energy saving potential of the EC film during the use phase.

How much do you expect the technology to cost? How competitive will it be with existing technologies (e.g. price/performance)?

We target a price level of 200 €/m2, which is about a factor of 4 less than standard EC windows based on glass. To be really competitive, an even lower price may be required, but 200 €/m2 is usually discussed in the community as a threshold price for competitiveness. A full performance evaluation is currently in progress. According to discussions with potential end-users, producers and customers, price is the major driver, while some performance aspects may be negotiable, depending on the application.

How easy or difficult will the technology be to commercialise?

It is a complex process presumably requiring an industrial development phase of 2-3 years after the end of the project and substantial investment (currently estimated: €10 million).

Which are the most promising application areas?

Smart windows for energy-efficient buildings, vehicle sunroofs, smart aircraft cabin windows, switchable appliance doors, smart eyewear and visors.

What are the main benefits provided by the technology (any quantitative data would be welcome in addition to a qualitative description)?

There are many benefits. What we are developing is a film-based technology suitable for window integration and retrofitting. It will have short switching times (<1 min as compared to 10-15 min for state-of-the-art EC windows), and most importantly cost-effective, high-throughput production will be possible (roll-to-roll manufacturing).

Our technology will also have a higher bleached state visual light transmittance as compared to state-of-the-art EC windows (60-65 % vs. 50-55 %); a lower darkened state visual light transmittance as compared to state-of-the-art EC windows (5-10 % vs. 10-15 %); it will be fully colourless (“neutral tint”) bleached state with no residual colour or hue.; it will have an appreciable g-value modulation as opposed to liquid crystal-based smart window film technologies; it is mechanically rugged; and it has a large thermal operation range (-25 to +60 °C).

Once the project is completed, what will be the next steps? How do you see the technology evolving in the future?

We will then have to focus on industrial development – scaling from pilot to production scale. Huge markets will become accessible in the future if the price target can be met and minimum performance requirements are fulfilled.

You can find out more about EELICON here.

I’m glad to see they’re finding a way to make the technology affordable and that they’ve tackled the ‘ruggedness’ issue; see my Oct. 9, 2015 posting about smart windows and their need for anti-aging treatment (apparently the windows are prone to mechanical failures over time).

Primordial goo for implants

Using the words ‘goo’ and ‘nanotechnology’ together almost always leads to ‘end of world’ scenarios referred to as  ‘grey goo‘ or there’s an alternative ‘green goo’ version also known as ecophagy. Presumably, that’s why Australian researchers avoided the word ‘nanotechnology’ in their study of the original goo, primordial goo from which all life oozed, to develop a coating for medical implants. From a Nov. 16, 2015 (Australia) Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) press release (also on EurekAlert),

Australia’s national science research organisation, CSIRO, has developed an innovative new coating that could be used to improve medical devices and implants, thanks to a “goo” thought to be have been home to the building blocks of life.

The molecules from this primordial goo – known as prebiotic compounds – can be traced back billions of years and have been studied intensively since their discovery several decades ago.

For the first time, Australian researchers have uncovered a way to use these molecules to assist with medical treatments.

“We wanted to use these prehistoric molecules, which are believed to have been the source of all life evolving on Earth, to see if we could apply the chemistry in a practical way.” [Dr. Richard Evans, CSIRO researcher]

The team discovered that the coating is bio-friendly and cells readily grow and colonise it.

It could be applied to medical devices to improve their performance and acceptance by the body.

This could assist with a range of medical procedures.

“The non-toxic coating (left) is adhesive and will coat almost any material making its potential biomedical applications really broad,” Dr Evans said.

The researchers also experimented with adding silver compounds, in order to produce an antibacterial coating that can be used on devices such as catheters to avoid infections.

“Other compounds can also be added to implants to reduce friction, make them more durable and resistant to wear,” Dr Evans said.

The coating process the scientists developed is very simple and uses methods and substances that are readily available.

This means biomedical manufacturers can produce improved results more cost effectively compared to existing coatings.

CSIRO is the first organisation to investigate practical applications of this kind using prebiotic chemistry.

“This research opens the door to a host of new biomedical possibilities that are still yet to be explored,” Dr Evans said.

CSIRO is seeking to partner with biomedical manufacturers to exploit this technology.

Here’s a link to and a citation for the paper,

Prebiotic-chemistry inspired polymer coatings for biomedical and material science applications by Helmut Thissen, Aylin Koegler, Mario Salwiczek, Christopher D Easton, Yue Qu, Trevor Lithgow, and Richard A Evans.  NPG Asia Materials (2015) 7, e225; doi:10.1038/am.2015.122 Published online 13 November 2015

This is an open access paper,