Category Archives: manufacturing

Detonating (exploding) your way to graphene

Physicists at Kansas State University use controlled detonation to make graphene according to a Jan. 25, 2017 news item on Nanowerk (Note: A link has been removed),

Forget chemicals, catalysts and expensive machinery — a Kansas State University team of physicists has discovered a way to mass-produce graphene with three ingredients: hydrocarbon gas, oxygen and a spark plug.

Their method is simple: Fill a chamber with acetylene or ethylene gas and oxygen. Use a vehicle spark plug to create a contained detonation. Collect the graphene that forms afterward.

Chris Sorensen, Cortelyou-Rust university distinguished professor of physics, is the lead inventor of the recently issued patent, “Process for high-yield production of graphene via detonation of carbon-containing material”. Other Kansas State University researchers involved include Arjun Nepal, postdoctoral researcher and instructor of physics, and Gajendra Prasad Singh, former visiting scientist.

For further reading here’s the Jan. 25, 2017 Kansas State University news release, which originated the news item,

“We have discovered a viable process to make graphene,” Sorensen said. “Our process has many positive properties, from the economic feasibility, the possibility for large-scale production and the lack of nasty chemicals. What might be the best property of all is that the energy required to make a gram of graphene through our process is much less than other processes because all it takes is a single spark.”

Graphene is a single atom-thick sheet of hexagonally coordinated carbon atoms, which makes it the world’s thinnest material. Since graphene was isolated in 2004, scientists have found it has valuable physical and electronic properties with many possible applications, such as more efficient rechargeable batteries or better electronics.

For Sorensen’s research team, the serendipitous path to creating graphene started when they were developing and patenting carbon soot aerosol gels. They created the gels by filling a 17-liter aluminum chamber with acetylene gas and oxygen. Using a spark plug, they created a detonation in the chamber. The soot from the detonation formed aerosol gels that looked like “black angel food cake,” Sorensen said.

But after further analysis, the researchers found that the aerosol gel was more than lookalike dark angel food cake — it was graphene.

“We made graphene by serendipity,” Sorensen said. “We didn’t plan on making graphene. We planned on making the aerosol gel and we got lucky.”

But unlike other methods of creating graphene, Sorensen’s method is simple, efficient, low-cost and scalable for industry.

Other methods of creating graphene involve “cooking” the mineral graphite with chemicals — such as sulfuric acid, sodium nitrate, potassium permanganate or hydrazine — for a long time at precisely prescribed temperatures. Additional methods involve heating hydrocarbons to 1,000 degrees Celsius in the presence of catalysts.

Such methods are energy intensive — and even dangerous — and have low yield, while Sorensen and his team’s method makes larger quantities with minimal energy and no dangerous chemicals.

“The real charm of our experiment is that we can produce graphene in the quantity of grams rather than milligrams,” Nepal said.

Now the research team — including Justin Wright, doctoral student in physics, Camp Hill, Pennsylvania — is working to improve the quality of the graphene and scale the laboratory process to an industrial level. They are upgrading some of the equipment to make it easier to get graphene from the chamber seconds — rather than minutes — after the detonation. Accessing the graphene more quickly could improve the quality of the material, Sorensen said.

The patent was issued to the Kansas State University Research Foundation, a nonprofit corporation responsible for managing technology transfer activities at the university.

I wish they’d filmed one of their graphene explosions even if it meant that all we’d get is the sight of a canister and the sound of a boom. Still, they did show a brief spark from the spark plug.

An examination of nanomanufacturing and nanofabrication

Michael Berger has written an Aug. 11, 2016 Nanowerk Spotlight review of a paper about nanomanufacturing (Note: A link has been removed),

… the path to greater benefits – whether economic, social, or environmental – from nanomanufactured goods and services is not yet clear. A recent review article in ACS Nano (“Nanomanufacturing: A Perspective”) by J. Alexander Liddle and Gregg M. Gallatin, takes silicon integrated circuit manufacturing as a baseline in order to consider the factors involved in matching processes with products, examining the characteristics and potential of top-down and bottom-up processes, and their combination.

The authors also discuss how a careful assessment of the way in which function can be made to follow form can enable high-volume manufacturing of nanoscale structures with the desired useful, and exciting, properties.

Although often used interchangeably, it makes sense to distinguish between nanofabrication and nanomanufacturing using the criterion of economic viability, suggested by the connotations of industrial scale and profitability associated with the word ‘manufacturing’.

Here’s a link to and a citation for the paper Berger is reviewing,

Nanomanufacturing: A Perspective by J. Alexander Liddle and Gregg M. Gallatin. ACS Nano, 2016, 10 (3), pp 2995–3014 DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.5b03299 Publication Date (Web): February 10, 2016

Copyright This article not subject to U.S. Copyright. Published 2016 by the American Chemical Society

This paper is behind a paywall.

Luckily for those who’d like a little more information before purchase, Berger’s review provides some insight into the study additional to what you’ll find in the abstract,

Nanomanufacturing, as the authors define it in their article, therefore, has the salient characteristic of being a source of money, while nanofabrication is often a sink.

To supply some background and indicate the scale of the nanomanufacturing challenge, the figure below shows the selling price ($·m-2) versus the annual production (m2) for a variety of nanoenabled or potentially nanoenabled products. The overall global market sizes are also indicated. It is interesting to note that the selling price spans 5 orders of magnitude, the production six, and the market size three. Although there is no strong correlation between the variables,
market price and size nanoenabled product
Log-log plot of the approximate product selling price ($·m-2) versus global annual production (m2) for a variety of nanoenabled, or potentially nanoenabled products. Approximate market sizes (2014) are shown next to each point. (Reprinted with permission by American Chemical Society)

market price and size nanoenabled product
Log-log plot of the approximate product selling price ($·m-2) versus global annual production (m2) for a variety of nanoenabled, or potentially nanoenabled products. Approximate market sizes (2014) are shown next to each point. (Reprinted with permission by American Chemical Society)

I encourage anyone interested in nanomanufacturing to read Berger’s article in its entirety as there is more detail and there are more figures to illustrate the points being made. He ends his review with this,

“Perhaps the most exciting prospect is that of creating dynamical nanoscale systems that are capable of exhibiting much richer structures and functionality. Whether this is achieved by learning how to control and engineer biological systems directly, or by building systems based on the same principles, remains to be seen, but will undoubtedly be disruptive and quite probably revolutionary.”

I find the reference to biological systems quite interesting especially in light of the recent launch of DARPA’s (US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) Engineered Living Materials (ELM) program (see my Aug. 9, 2016 posting).

Promethean Particles claims to be world’s largest nanomaterial production plant

It’s a bit puzzling initially as both the SHYMAN (Sustainable Hydrothermal Manufacturing of Nanomaterials) project and Promethean Particles are claiming to be the world’s biggest nanomaterials production facility. In a battle of press release titles (one from CORDIS and one from the University of Nottingham) it becomes clear after reading both that the SHYMAN project is the name for a European Commission 7th Framework Programme funded project and Promethean Particles, located at the University of Nottingham (UK), is a spinoff from that project. So, both claims are true, although confusing at first glance.

An Aug. 1, 2016 news item on Nanowerk breaks the news about the ‘SHYMAN project’s’ production facility (Note: A link has been removed),

The European SHYMAN project aims to establish continuous hydrothermal synthesis as the most flexible and sustainable process to create nanomaterials at industrial scale. After demonstrating this potential in the lab, the project has now announced the opening of its first facility in Nottingham.

An (Aug. 1, 2016?) CORDIS press release, which originated the news item,

‘This new facility opens up a significant amount of new opportunities for us,’ says Professor Ed Lester, Technical Coordinator of Promethean Particles. This spin-out of the University of Nottingham is in charge of operating the new plant, which is expected to produce over 1 000 tonnes of nanomaterials every year. The production cost is lower than that of other facilities and the chosen production method – continuous hydrothermal synthesis – is expected to impact even markets for which sale prices had so far been an obstacle.

‘We have already had a lot of interest from companies in a diverse range of sectors. From healthcare, where nano-particles can be used in coatings on medical devices, to enhanced fabrics, where nano-materials can add strength and flexibility to textiles, and in printed electronics, as we are able to print materials such as copper,’ Prof. Lester continues. Solvay, Fiat, PPG and Repsol are among the major companies already set to benefit from the plant’s products.

To reach these impressive levels of production, the plant notably relies on high pressure triplex plunger pumps manufactured by Cat Pumps. These pumps have helped the 18-strong consortium to overcome engineering issues related to the mixing of the heated fluid and the aqueous metal salt flow, by creating the continuous pressure and fluid flow necessary to achieve continuous production.

Another enabling technology is the Nozzle Reactor, a customised design that uses buoyancy-induced eddies to produce an ‘ideal’ mixing scenario in a pipe-in-pip concentric configuration in which the internal pipe has an open-ended nozzle. This technology allows Promethean Particles to dramatically improve reproducibility and reliability whilst controlling particles properties such as size, composition and shape.

Betting on hydrothermal synthesis

Started in 2012, SHYMAN built upon the observation that hydrothermal synthesis had numerous advantages compared to alternatives: it doesn’t resort to noxious chemicals, uses relatively simple chemistry relying on cheap precursors, allows straightforward downstream processing, can avoid agglomeration and allows for narrow and well-controlled size and shape distribution.

The optimisation of hydrothermal synthesis has been a key objective of the University of Nottingham for the past 14 years, and SHYMAN is the pinnacle: the project began with the development of bench scale reactors, followed by a 30-times-larger pilot scale reactor. The reactor at the heart of the new production plant is 80 times larger than the latter and features four Cat Pumps Model 3801 high pressure triplex plunger pumps.

‘These are very exciting times for Promethean Particles,’ said Dr Susan Huxtable, Director of Intellectual Property and Commercialisation at the University of Nottingham. ‘The new facility opens up a myriad of opportunities for them to sell their services into new markets right across the world. It is a great example of how many of the technologies developed by academics here at the University of Nottingham have the potential to benefit both industry and society.’

The July 12, 2016 University of Nottingham press release, while covering much of the same ground, offers some additional detail,

The plant [Promethean Particles] was developed as part of a pan-European nano-materials research programme, known as SHYMAN (Sustainable Hydrothermal Manufacturing of Nanomaterials). The project, which had a total value of €9.7 million Euros, included partner universities and businesses from 12 European countries.

The outcome of the project was the creation of the largest multi-material nano-particle plant in the world, based in Nottingham. The plant is now operated by Promethean, and it is able to operate at supercritical conditions, producing up to 200 kg of nano-particles per hour.

You can find out more about the SHYMAN project here and Promethean Particles here.

Untangling carbon nanotubes at McMaster University (Canada)

Carbon nanotubes can be wiggly, entangled things (more about McMaster in a bit) as Dr. Andrew Maynard notes in this video (part of his Risk Bites video series) describing carbon nanotubes, their ‘infinite’ variety, and risks,

Researchers at Canada’s McMaster University have found a way to untangle carbon nanotubes according to an Aug. 16, 2016 news item on Nanowerk (Note: A link has been removed),

Imagine an electronic newspaper that you could roll up and spill your coffee on, even as it updated itself before your eyes.

It’s an example of the technological revolution that has been waiting to happen, except for one major problem that, until now, scientists have not been able to resolve.

Researchers at McMaster University have cleared that obstacle by developing a new way to purify carbon nanotubes – the smaller, nimbler semiconductors that are expected to replace silicon within computer chips and a wide array of electronics (Chemistry – A European Journal, “Influence of Polymer Electronics on Selective Dispersion of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes”).

“Once we have a reliable source of pure nanotubes that are not very expensive, a lot can happen very quickly,” says Alex Adronov, a professor of Chemistry at McMaster whose research team has developed a new and potentially cost-efficient way to purify carbon nanotubes.

The researchers have provided a gorgeous image,

Artistic rendition of a metallic carbon nanotube being pulled into solution, in analogy to the work described by the Adronov group. Image: Alex Adronov McMaster

Artistic rendition of a metallic carbon nanotube being pulled into solution, in analogy to the work described by the Adronov group. Image: Alex Adronov McMaster University

An Aug. 15, 2016 McMaster University news release, which originated the news item, provides a beginner’s introduction to carbon nanotubes and describes the purification process that will make production of carbon nanotubes easier,

Carbon nanotubes – hair-like structures that are one billionth of a metre in diameter but thousands of times longer ­– are tiny, flexible conductive nano-scale materials, expected to revolutionize computers and electronics by replacing much larger silicon-based chips.

A major problem standing in the way of the new technology, however, has been untangling metallic and semiconducting carbon nanotubes, since both are created simultaneously in the process of producing the microscopic structures, which typically involves heating carbon-based gases to a point where mixed clusters of nanotubes form spontaneously as black soot.

Only pure semiconducting or metallic carbon nanotubes are effective in device applications, but efficiently isolating them has proven to be a challenging problem to overcome. Even when the nanotube soot is ground down, semiconducting and metallic nanotubes are knotted together within each grain of powder. Both components are valuable, but only when separated.

Researchers around the world have spent years trying to find effective and efficient ways to isolate carbon nanotubes and unleash their value.

While previous researchers had created polymers that could allow semiconducting carbon nanotubes to be dissolved and washed away, leaving metallic nanotubes behind, there was no such process for doing the opposite: dispersing the metallic nanotubes and leaving behind the semiconducting structures.

Now, Adronov’s research group has managed to reverse the electronic characteristics of a polymer known to disperse semiconducting nanotubes – while leaving the rest of the polymer’s structure intact. By so doing, they have reversed the process, leaving the semiconducting nanotubes behind while making it possible to disperse the metallic nanotubes.

The researchers worked closely with experts and equipment from McMaster’s Faculty of Engineering and the Canada Centre for Electron Microscopy, located on the university’s campus.

“There aren’t many places in the world where you can do this type of interdisciplinary work,” Adronov says.

The next step, he explains, is for his team or other researchers to exploit the discovery by finding a way to develop even more efficient polymers and scale up the process for commercial production.

Here’s a link to and a citation for the paper,

Influence of Polymer Electronics on Selective Dispersion of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by *Darryl Fong*, William J. Bodnaryk, Dr. Nicole A. Rice, Sokunthearath Saem, Prof. Jose M. Moran-Mirabal, Prof. Alex Adronov. Chemistry A European Journal DOI: 10.1002/chem.201603553 First published: 16 August 2016

This paper appears to be open access.

*’Daryl Fon’ changed to ‘Darryl Fong’ on Oct. 3, 2016.

Carbon nanotubes: faster, cheaper, easier, and more consistent

One of the big problems with nanomaterials has to do with production issues such as: consistent size and shape. It seems that scientists at the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have developed a technique for producing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) which addresses these issues. From a July 19, 2016 news item on Nanotechnology Now,

Just as many of us might be resigned to clogged salt shakers or rush-hour traffic, those working to exploit the special properties of carbon nanotubes have typically shrugged their shoulders when these tiniest of cylinders fill with water during processing. But for nanotube practitioners who have reached their Popeye threshold and “can’t stands no more,” the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has devised a cheap, quick and effective strategy that reliably enhances the quality and consistency of the materials–important for using them effectively in applications such as new computing technologies.

To prevent filling of the cores of single-wall carbon nanotubes with water or other detrimental substances, the NIST researchers advise intentionally prefilling them with a desired chemical of known properties. Taking this step before separating and dispersing the materials, usually done in water, yields a consistently uniform collection of nanotubes. In quantity and quality, the results are superior to water-filled nanotubes, especially for optical applications such as sensors and photodetectors.

A July 15, 2016 NIST news release, which originated the news item, expands on the theme,

The approach opens a straightforward route for engineering the properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes—rolled up sheets of carbon atoms arranged like chicken wire or honey combs—with improved or new properties.

“This approach is so easy, inexpensive and broadly useful that I can’t think of a reason not to use it,” said NIST chemical engineer Jeffrey Fagan.

In their proof-of-concept experiments, the NIST team inserted more than 20 different compounds into an assortment of single-wall carbon nanotubes with an interior diameter that ranged from more than 2 down to about 0.5 nanometers. Led by visiting researcher Jochen Campo, the scientists tested their strategy by using hydrocarbons called alkanes as fillers.

The alkanes, which include such familiar compounds as propane and butane, served to render the nanotube interiors unreactive. In other words, the alkane-filled nanotubes behaved almost as if they were empty—precisely the goal of Campo, Fagan and colleagues.

Compared with nanotubes filled with water and possibly ions, acids and other unwanted chemicals encountered during processing, empty nanotubes possess far superior properties. For example, when stimulated by light, empty carbon nanotubes fluoresce far brighter and with sharper signals.

Yet, “spontaneous ingestion” of water or other solvents by the nanotubes during processing is an “endemic but often neglected phenomenon with strong implications for the development of nanotube applications,” the NIST team wrote in a recent article in Nanoscale Horizons.

Perhaps because of the additional cost and effort required to filter out and gather nanotubes, researchers tend to tolerate mixed batches of unfilled (empty) and mostly filled single-wall carbon nanotubes. Separating unfilled nanotubes from these mixtures requires expensive ultracentrifuge equipment and, even then, the yield is only about 10 percent, Campo estimates.

“If your goal is to use nanotubes for electronic circuits, for example, or for fluorescent anti-cancer image contrast agents, then you require much greater quantities of materials of consistent composition and quality,” Campo explained, who was exploring these applications while doing postdoctoral research at the University of Antwerp. “This particular need inspired development of the new prefilling method by asking the question, can we put some passive chemical into the nanotube instead to keep the water out.”

From the very first simple experiments, the answer was yes. And the benefits can be significant. In fluorescence experiments, alkane-filled nanotubes emitted signals two to three times stronger than those emitted by water-filled nanotubes. Performance approached that of empty nanotubes—the gold standard for these comparisons.

As important, the NIST-developed prefilling strategy is controllable, versatile and easily incorporated into existing methods for processing single-wall carbon nanotubes, according to the researchers.

Here’s a link to and citation for the paper,

Enhancing single-wall carbon nanotube properties through controlled endohedral filling by J. Campo, Y. Piao, S. Lam, C. M. Stafford, J. K. Streit, J. R. Simpson, A. R. Hight Walker, and J. A. Fagan. Nanoscale Horiz., 2016,1, 317-324 DOI: 10.1039/C6NH00062B First published online 10 May 2016

This paper is open access but you do need to register on the site (it is a free registration).

Cientifica’s “Wearables, Smart Textiles and Nanotechnology Applications Technologies and Markets” report

It’s been a long time since I’ve received notice of a report from Cientifica Research and I’m glad to see another one. This is titled, Wearables, Smart Textiles and Nanotechnologies and Markets, and has just been published according to the May 26,  2016 Cientifica announcement received by email.

Here’s more from the report’s order page on the Cientifica site,

Wearables, Smart Textiles and Nanotechnology: Applications, Technologies and Markets

Price GBP 1995 / USD 2995

The past few years have seen the introduction of a number of wearable technologies, from fitness trackers to “smart watches” but with the increasing use of smart textiles wearables are set to become ‘disappearables’ as the devices merge with textiles.

The textile industry will experience a growing demand for high-tech materials driven largely by both technical textiles and the increasing integration of smart textiles to create wearable devices based on sensors.  This will enable the transition of the wearable market away from one dominated by discrete hardware based on MEMS accelerometers and smartphones. Unlike today’s ‘wearables’ tomorrow’s devices will be fully integrated into the the garment through the use of conductive fibres, multilayer 3D printed structures and two dimensional materials such as graphene.

Largely driven by the use of nanotechnologies, this sector will be one of the largest end users of nano- and two dimensional materials such as graphene, with wearable devices accounting for over half the demand by 2022. Products utilizing two dimensional materials such as graphene inks will be integral to the growth of wearables, representing a multi-billion dollar opportunity by 2022.

This represents significant opportunities for both existing smart textiles companies and new entrants to create and grow niche markets in sectors currently dominated by hardware manufacturers such Apple and Samsung.

The market for wearables using smart textiles is forecast to grow at a CAGR [compound annual growth rate] of 132% between 2016 and 2022 representing a $70 billion market. Largely driven by the use of nanotechnologies, this sector has the potential to be one of the largest end users of nano and two dimensional materials such as graphene, with wearable devices accounting for over half the demand by 2022.

“Wearables, Smart Textiles and Nanotechnologies: Applications, Technologies and Markets” looks at the technologies involved from antibacterial silver nanoparticles to electrospun graphene fibers, the companies applying them, and the impact on sectors including wearables, apparel, home, military, technical, and medical textiles.

This report is based on an extensive research study of the smart textile market backed with over a decade of experience in identifying, predicting and sizing markets for nanotechnologies and smart textiles. Detailed market figures are given from 2016-2022, along with an analysis of the key opportunities, and illustrated with 120 figures and 15 tables.

I always love to view the table of contents (from the report’s order page),

Table of Contents      

Executive Summary  

Why Wearable Technologies Need More than Silicon + Software

The Solution Is in Your Closet

The Shift To Higher Value Textiles

Nanomaterials Add Functionality and Value


Objectives of the Report

World Textiles and Clothing

Overview of Nanotechnology Applications in the EU Textile Industry

Overview of Nanotechnology Applications in the US Textile Industry

Overview of Nanotechnology Applications in the Chinese Textile Industry

Overview of Nanotechnology Applications in the Indian Textile Industry

Overview of Nanotechnology Applications in the Japanese Textile Industry

Overview of Nanotechnology Applications in the Korean Textile Industry

Textiles in the Rest of the World

Macro and Micro Value Chain of Textiles Industry

Common Textiles Industry Classifications

End Markets and Value Chain Actors

Why Textiles Adopt Nanotechnologies        

Nanotechnology in Textiles

Examples of Nanotechnology in Textiles

Nanotechnology in Some Textile-related Categories

Technical & Smart Textiles

Multifunctional Textiles

High Performance Textiles

Smart/Intelligent Textiles

Nanotechnology Hype

Current Applications of Nanotechnology in Textile Production       

Nanotechnology in Fibers and Yarns

Nano-Structured Composite Fibers

Nanotechnology in Textile Finishing, Dyeing and Coating

Nanotechnology In Textile Printing

Green Technology—Nanotechnology In Textile Production Energy Saving

Electronic Textiles and Wearables   

Nanotechnology in Electronic Textiles


Markets and Impacts

Conductive Materials

Carbon Nanotube Composite Conductive Fibers

Carbon Nanotube Yarns

Nano-Treatment for Conductive Fiber/Sensors

Textile-Based Wearable Electronics

Conductive Coatings On Fibers For Electronic Textiles

Stretchable  Electronics

Memory-Storing Fiber

Transistor Cotton for Smart Clothing

Embedding Transparent, Flexible Graphene Electrodes Into Fibers

Organic Electronic Fibers

‘Temperature Regulating Smart Fabric’

Digital System Built Directly on a Fiber


Shirt Button Sensors

An integrated textile heart monitoring solution

OmSignal’s  Smart Bra

Printed sensors to track movement

Textile Gas Sensors

Smart Seats To Curtail Fatigued Driving.

Wireless Brain and Heart Monitors

Chain Mail Fabric for Smart Textiles

Graphene-Based Woven Fabric

Anti-Counterfeiting and Drug Delivery Nanofiber

Batteries and Energy Storage

Flexible Batteries

Cable Batteries

Flexible Supercapacitors

Energy Harvesting Textiles

Light Emitting Textiles  

Data Transmission 

Future and Challenges of Electronic Textiles and Wearables

Market Forecast

Smart Textiles, Nanotechnology and Apparel          

Nano-Antibacterial Clothing Textiles

Nanosilver Safety Concerns

UV/Sun/Radiation Protective

Hassle-free Clothing: Stain/Oil/Water Repellence, Anti-Static, Anti-Wrinkle


Comfort Issues: Perspiration Control, Moisture Management

Creative Appearance and Scent for High Street Fashions

Nanobarcodes for Clothing Combats Counterfeiting

High Strength, Abrasion-Resistant Fabric Using Carbon Nanotube

Nanotechnology For Home Laundry

Current Adopters of Nanotechnology in Clothing/Apparel Textiles

Products and Markets

Market Forecast

Nanotechnology in Home Textiles   

Summary of Nanotechnology Applications in Home Textiles

Current Applications of Nanotechnology in Home Textiles

Current Adopters of Nanotechnology in Home Textiles

Products and Markets

Costs and Benefits

Market Forecast

Nanotechnology Applications in Military/Defence Textiles

Summary of Nanotechnology Applications in Military/Defence Textiles

Military Textiles

Current Applications of Nanotechnology in Military/Defence Textiles

Current Adopters of Nanotechnology in Military/Defence Textiles

Light Weight, Multifunctional Nanostructured Fibers and Materials

Costs and Benefits

Market Forecast

Nanotechnology Applications in Medical Textiles   

Summary of Nanotechnology Applications in Medical Textiles

Current Applications of Nanotechnology in Medical Textiles

Current Adopters of Nanotechnology in Medical Textiles

Products and Markets

Costs and Benefits

Market Forecast

Nanotechnology Applications in Sports/Outdoor Textiles   

Summary of Nanotechnology Applications in Sports/Outdoor Textiles

Current Applications of Nanotechnology in Sports/Outdoor Textiles

Current Adopters of Nanotechnology in Sports/Outdoor Textiles

Products and Markets

Costs and Benefits

Market Forecast

Nanotechnology Applications in Technical Textiles 

Summary of Nanotechnology Applications in Technical and smart textiles

Current Applications of Nanotechnology in Technical Textiles

Current Adopters of Nanotechnology in Technical and smart textiles

Products and Markets

Costs and Benefits

Market Forecast

APPENDIX I: Companies/Research Institutes Applying Nanotechnologies to the Textile Industry

Companies Working on Nanofiber Applications

Companies Working on Nanofabric Applications

Companies Working on Nano Finishing, Coating, Dyeing and Printing Applications

Companies Working on Green Nanotechnology In Textile Production Energy Saving Applications

Companies Working on E-textile Applications

Companies Working on Nano Applications in Clothing/Apparel Textiles

Companies Working on Nano Applications in Home Textiles

Companies Working on Nano Applications in Sports/Outdoor Textile

Companies Working on Nano Applications in Military/Defence Textiles

Companies Working on Nano Applications in Technical Textiles

APPENDIX II: Selected Company Profiles     

APPENDIX III: Companies Mentioned in This Report 

The report’s order page has a form you can fill out to get more information but, as far as I can tell, there is no purchase button or link to a shopping cart for purchase.


Recently, there was an email in my inbox touting a Canadian-based company’s underclothing made with the founder’s Sweat-Secret fabric technology (I have not been able to find any details about the technology). As this has some of the qualities being claimed for the nanotechnology-enabled textiles described in the report and the name for the company amuses me, Noody Patooty, I’m including it in this posting (from the homepage),

Organic Bamboo Fabric
The soft, breathable and thermoregulation benefits of organic bamboo fabric keep you comfortable throughout all your busy days.

Sweat-Secret™ Technology
The high performance fabric in the underarm wicks day-to-day sweat and moisture from the body preventing sweat and odour stains.

Made in Canada
From fabric to finished garment our entire collection is made in Canada using sustainable and ethical manufacturing processes.

This is not an endorsement of the Noody Patooty undershirts. I’ve never tried one.

As for the report, Tim Harper who founded Cientifica Research has in my experience always been knowledgeable and well-informed (although I don’t always agree with him). Presumably, he’s still with the company but I’m not entirely certain.

Open access to nanoparticles and nanocomposites

One of the major issues for developing nanotechnology-enabled products is access to nanoparticles and nanocomposites. For example, I’ve had a number of requests from entrepreneurs for suggestions as to how to access cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) so they can develop a product idea. (It’s been a few years since the last request and I hope that means it’s easier to get access to CNC.)

Regardless, access remains a problem and the European Union has devised a solution which allows open access to nanoparticles and nanocomposites through project Co-Pilot. The announcement was made in a May 10, 2016 news item on Nanowerk (Note: A link has been removed),

“What opportunities does the nanotechnology provide in general, provide nanoparticles for my products and processes?” So far, this question cannot be answered easily. Preparation and modification of nanoparticles and the further processing require special technical infrastructure and complex knowledge. For small and medium businesses the construction of this infrastructure “just on luck” is often not worth it. Even large companies shy away from the risks. As a result many good ideas just stay in the drawer.

A simple and open access to high-class infrastructure for the reliable production of small batches of functionalized nanoparticles and nanocomposites for testing could ease the way towards new nano-based products for chemical and pharmaceutical companies. The European Union has allocated funds for the construction of a number of pilot lines and open-access infrastructure within the framework of the EU project CoPilot.

A May 9, 2016 Fraunhofer-Institut für Silicatforschung press release, which originated the news item, offers greater description,

A simple and open access to high-class infrastructure for the reliable production of small batches of functionalized nanoparticles and nanocomposites for testing could ease the way towards new nano-based products for chemical and pharmaceutical companies. The European Union has allocated funds for the construction of a number of pilot lines and open-access infrastructure within the framework of the EU project CoPilot. A consortium of 13 partners from research and industry, including nanotechnology specialist TNO from the Netherlands and the Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC from Wuerzburg, Germany as well as seven nanomaterial manufacturers, is currently setting up the pilot line in Wuerzburg. First, they establish the particle production, modification and compounding on pilot scale based on four different model systems. The approach enables maximum variability and flexibility for the pilot production of various particle systems and composites. Two further open access lines will be established at TNO in Eindhoven and at the Sueddeutsche Kunststoffzentrum SKZ in Selb.

The “nanoparticle kitchen”

Essential elements of the pilot line in Wuerzburg are the particle synthesis in batches up to 100 liters, modification and separation methods such as semi-continuous operating centrifuge and in-line analysis and techniques for the uniform and agglomeration free incorporation of nanoparticles into composites. Dr. Karl Mandel, head of Particle Technology of Fraunhofer ISC, compares the pilot line with a high-tech kitchen: “We provide the top-notch equipment and the star chefs to synthesize a nano menu à la carte as well as nanoparticles according to individual requests. Thus, companies can test their own receipts – or our existing receipts – before they practice their own cooking or set up their nano kitchen.”

In the future, the EU project offers companies a contact point if they want to try their nano idea and require enough material for sampling and estimation of future production costs. This can, on the one hand, minimize the development risk, on the other hand, it maximizes the flexibility and production safety. To give lots of companies the opportunity to influence direction and structure/formation/setup of the nanoparticle kitchen, the project partners will offer open meetings on a regular basis.

I gather Co-Pilot has been offering workshops. The next is in July 2016 according to the press release,

The next workshop in this context takes place at Fraunhofer ISC in Wuerzburg, 7h July 2016. The partners present the pilot line and the first results of the four model systems – double layered hydroxide nanoparticle polymer composites for flame inhibiting fillers, titanium dioxide nanoparticles for high refractive index composites, magnetic particles for innovative catalysts and hollow silica composites for anti-glare coatings. Interested companies can find more information about the upcoming workshop on the website of the project and on the website of Fraunhofer ISC that hosts the event.

I tracked down a tiny bit more information about the July 2016 workshop in a May 2, 2016 Co-Pilot press release,

On July 7 2016, the CoPilot project partners give an insight view of the many new functionalization and applications of tailored nanoparticles in the workshop “The Nanoparticle Kitchen – particles und functions à la carte”, taking place in Wuerzburg, Germany. Join the Fraunhofer ISC’s lab tour of the “Nanoparticle Kitchen”, listen to the presentations of research institutes and industry and discuss your ideas with experts. Nanoparticles offer many options for today’s and tomorrow’s products.

More about program and registration soon on this [CoPilot] website!

I wonder if they’re considering this open access to nanoparticles and nanocomposites approach elsewhere?

Eggshell-based bioplastics

Adding eggshell nanoparticles to a bioplastic (shown above) increases the strength and flexibility of the material, potentially making it more attractive for use in the packaging industry. Credit: Vijaya Rangari/Tuskegee University

Adding eggshell nanoparticles to a bioplastic (shown above) increases the strength and flexibility of the material, potentially making it more attractive for use in the packaging industry. Credit: Vijaya Rangari/Tuskegee University

A March 15, 2016 news item on Nanowerk describes the research,

Eggshells are both marvels and afterthoughts. Placed on end, they are as strong as the arches supporting ancient Roman aqueducts. Yet they readily crack in the middle, and once that happens, we discard them without a second thought. But now scientists report that adding tiny shards of eggshell to bioplastic could create a first-of-its-kind biodegradable packaging material that bends but does not easily break.

The researchers present their work today [March 15, 2016] at the 251st National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society (ACS).

A March 15, 2016 ACS news release (also on EurekAlert), which originated the news item, describes the work further,

“We’re breaking eggshells down into their most minute components and then infusing them into a special blend of bioplastics that we have developed,” says Vijaya K. Rangari, Ph.D. “These nano-sized eggshell particles add strength to the material and make them far more flexible than other bioplastics on the market. We believe that these traits — along with its biodegradability in the soil — could make this eggshell bioplastic a very attractive alternative packaging material.”

Worldwide, manufacturers produce about 300 million tons of plastic annually. Almost 99 percent of it is made with crude oil and other fossil fuels. Once it is discarded, petroleum-based plastics can last for centuries without breaking down. If burned, these plastics release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, which can contribute to global climate change.

As an alternative, some manufacturers are producing bioplastics — a form of plastic derived from cornstarch, sweet potatoes or other renewable plant-based sources — that readily decompose or biodegrade once they are in the ground. However, most of these materials lack the strength and flexibility needed to work well in the packaging industry. And that’s a problem since the vast majority of plastic is used to hold, wrap and encase products. So petroleum-based materials continue to dominate the market, particularly in grocery and other retail stores, where estimates suggest that up to a trillion plastic bags are distributed worldwide every year.

To find a solution, Rangari, graduate student Boniface Tiimob and colleagues at Tuskegee University experimented with various plastic polymers. Eventually, they latched onto a mixture of 70 percent polybutyrate adipate terephthalate (PBAT), a petroleum polymer, and 30 percent polylactic acid (PLA), a polymer derived from cornstarch. PBAT, unlike other oil-based plastic polymers, is designed to begin degrading as soon as three months after it is put into the soil.

This mixture had many of the traits that the researchers were looking for, but they wanted to further enhance the flexibility of the material. So they created nanoparticles made of eggshells. They chose eggshells, in part, because they are porous, lightweight and mainly composed of calcium carbonate, a natural compound that easily decays.

The shells were washed, ground up in polypropylene glycol and then exposed to ultrasonic waves that broke the shell fragments down into nanoparticles more than 350,000 times smaller than the diameter of a human hair. Then, in a laboratory study, they infused a small fraction of these particles, each shaped like a deck of cards, into the 70/30 mixture of PBAT and PLA. The researchers found that this addition made the mixture 700 percent more flexible than other bioplastic blends. They say this pliability could make it ideal for use in retail packaging, grocery bags and food containers — including egg cartons.

In addition to bioplastics, Rangari’s team is investigating using eggshell nanoparticles to enhance wound healing, bone regeneration and drug delivery.

Mass production of nanoparticles?

With all the years of nanotechnology and nanomaterials research it seems strange that mass production of nanoparticles is still very much in the early stages as a Feb. 24, 2016 news item on points out,

Nanoparticles – tiny particles 100,000 times smaller than the width of a strand of hair – can be found in everything from drug delivery formulations to pollution controls on cars to HD TV sets. With special properties derived from their tiny size and subsequently increased surface area, they’re critical to industry and scientific research.

They’re also expensive and tricky to make.

Now, researchers at USC [University of Southern California] have created a new way to manufacture nanoparticles that will transform the process from a painstaking, batch-by-batch drudgery into a large-scale, automated assembly line.

A Feb. 24, 2016 USC news release (also on EurekAlert) by Robert Perkins, which originated the news item, offers additional insight,

Consider, for example, gold nanoparticles. They have been shown to easily penetrate cell membranes without causing any damage — an unusual feat given that most penetrations of cell membranes by foreign objects can damage or kill the cell. Their ability to slip through the cell’s membrane makes gold nanoparticles ideal delivery devices for medications to healthy cells or fatal doses of radiation to cancer cells.

However, a single milligram of gold nanoparticles currently costs about $80 (depending on the size of the nanoparticles). That places the price of gold nanoparticles at $80,000 per gram while a gram of pure, raw gold goes for about $50.

“It’s not the gold that’s making it expensive,” Malmstadt [Noah Malmstadt of the USC Viterbi School of Engineering] said. “We can make them, but it’s not like we can cheaply make a 50-gallon drum full of them.”

A fluid situation

At this time, the process of manufacturing a nanoparticle typically involves a technician in a chemistry lab mixing up a batch of chemicals by hand in traditional lab flasks and beakers.

The new technique used by Brutchey [Richard Brutchey of the USC Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences] and Malmstadt instead relies on microfluidics — technology that manipulates tiny droplets of fluid in narrow channels.

“In order to go large scale, we have to go small,” Brutchey said.

Really small.

The team 3-D printed tubes about 250 micrometers in diameter, which they believe to be the smallest, fully enclosed 3-D printed tubes anywhere. For reference, your average-sized speck of dust is 50 micrometers wide.

They they built a parallel network of four of these tubes, side-by-side, and ran a combination of two nonmixing fluids (like oil and water) through them. As the two fluids fought to get out through the openings, they squeezed off tiny droplets. Each of these droplets acted as a micro-scale chemical reactor in which materials were mixed and nanoparticles were generated. Each microfluidic tube can create millions of identical droplets that perform the same reaction.

This sort of system has been envisioned in the past, but it hasn’t been able to be scaled up because the parallel structure meant that if one tube got jammed, it would cause a ripple effect of changing pressures along its neighbors, knocking out the entire system. Think of it like losing a single Christmas light in one of the old-style strands — lose one and you lose them all.

Brutchey and Malmstadt bypassed this problem by altering the geometry of the tubes themselves, shaping the junction between the tubes such that the particles come out a uniform size and the system is immune to pressure changes.

Here’s a link to and a citation for the paper,

Flow invariant droplet formation for stable parallel microreactors by Carson T. Riche, Emily J. Roberts, Malancha Gupta, Richard L. Brutchey & Noah Malmstadt. Nature Communications 7, Article number: 10780 doi:10.1038/ncomms10780 Published 23 February 2016

This is an open access paper.