Monthly Archives: August 2016

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (US) and five of its nanoscience projects

An Aug 3, 2016 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory news release (also on Azonano as an Aug. 5, 2016 news item) features a selection of their nanoscience projects (Note: Links, embedded images, and embedded videos have been removed),

1. A DIY paint-on coating for energy efficient windows

This “cool” DIY retrofit tech could improve the energy efficiency of windows and save money. Researchers are developing a polymer-based heat-reflective coating that makes use of the unusual molecular architecture of a polymer.

It has the potential to be painted on windows at one-tenth the cost of current retrofit approaches. Window films on the market today reflect infrared solar energy back to the sky while allowing visible light to pass through, but a professional contractor is needed to install them. A low-cost option could significantly expand adoption and result in potential annual energy savings equivalent to taking 5 million cars off the road.

2. Nanowires that move data at light speed

Researchers have found a new way to produce nanoscale wires that can serve as tiny, tunable lasers. The excellent performance of these tiny lasers is promising for the field of optoelectronics, which is focused on combining electronics and light to transmit data, among other applications. Miniaturizing lasers to the nanoscale could further revolutionize computing, bringing light-speed data transmission to desktop, and ultimately, handheld computing devices.

3. Nano sponges that fight climate change

Scientists are developing nano sponges that could capture carbon from power plants before it enters the atmosphere. Initial tests show the hybrid membrane, composed of nano-sized cages (called metal-organic frameworks) and a polymer, is eight times more carbon dioxide permeable than membranes composed only of the polymer.

Boosting carbon dioxide permeability is a big goal in efforts to develop carbon capture materials that are energy efficient and cost competitive. Watch this video for more on this technology.

4. Custom-made chemical factories

Scientists have recently reengineered a building block of a nanocompartment that occurs naturally in bacteria, greatly expanding the potential of nanocompartments to serve as custom-made chemical factories. Researchers hope to tailor this new use to produce high-value chemical products, such as medicines, on demand

The sturdy nanocompartments are formed by hundreds of copies of just three different types of proteins. Their natural counterparts, known as bacterial microcompartments, encase a wide variety of enzymes that carry out highly specialized chemistry in bacteria.

5. Nanotubes that assemble themselves

Researchers have discovered a family of nature-inspired polymers that, when placed in water, spontaneously assemble into hollow crystalline nanotubes. What’s more, the nanotubes can be tuned to all have the same diameter of between five and ten nanometers.

Controlling the diameter of nanotubes, and the chemical groups exposed in their interior, enables scientists to control what goes through. Nanotubes have the potential to be incredibly useful, from delivering cancer-fighting drugs inside cells to desalinating seawater.

It’s nice to see projects grouped together like that as it gives you a bigger picture of what’s taking place at the lab than you’re likely to get reading news releases about individual projects and breakthroughs.

Berkeley Lab has also got an introductory video which does one of the best jobs I’ve seen of conveying the concept of the nanoscale,

H/t to Aug. 10, 2016 news item on Nanowerk for the Berkeley Lab’s ‘nano penny’ video.

Book announcement: Nanotechnology: The Future is Tiny

The book has a pretty cover (carbon nanotubes in the left corner, nanoparticles? next, and a circuit board to complete the image),


The book, written by Michael Berger, publisher of the Nanowerk website, was announced in an Aug. 31, 2016 Nanowerk Spotlight article (Note: Links have been removed),

“Nanotechnology: The Future is Tiny” puts a spotlight on some of the scientists who are pushing the boundaries of technology and it gives examples of their work and how they are advancing knowledge one little step at a time.

Written by Nanowerk’s Michael Berger, this book is a collection of essays about researchers involved in all facets of nanotechnologies. Nanoscience and nanotechnology research are truly multidisciplinary and international efforts, covering a wide range of scientific disciplines such as medicine, materials sciences, chemistry, biology and biotechnology, physics and electronics.

Here’s more about the book before I comment on the marketing (from the Nanotechnology: The Future is Tiny webpage on the Royal Society of Chemistry’s website),

Nanotechnology: The Future is Tiny introduces 176 different research projects from around the world that are exploring the different areas of nanotechnologies. Using interviews and descriptions of the projects, the collection of essays provides a unique commentary on the current status of the field. From flexible electronics that you can wear to nanomaterials used for cancer diagnostics and therapeutics, the book gives a new perspective on the current work into developing new nanotechnologies. Each chapter delves into a specific area of nanotechnology research including graphene, energy storage, electronics, 3D printing, nanomedicine, nanorobotics as well as environmental implications.

Through the scientists’ own words, the book gives a personal perspective on how nanotechnologies are created and developed, and an exclusive look at how today’s research will create tomorrow’s products and applications. This book will appeal to anyone who has an interest in the research and future of nanotechnology.

Publication Details
Print publication date: 30 Aug 2016
Copyright: 2016
Print ISBN: 978-1-78262-526-1
PDF eISBN: 978-1-78262-887-3
EPUB eISBN: 978-1-78262-888-0

According to Berger’s description of his book (from the Aug. 31, 2016 Nanowerk Spotlight article),

Some stories are more like an introduction to nanotechnology, some are about understanding current developments, and some are advanced technical discussions of leading edge research. Reading this book will shatter the monolithic term “nanotechnology” into the myriad of facets that it really is.

Berger has taken on a very challenging task for a writer. It’s very difficult to produce a book that will satisfy the range of audiences described. Appealing to a different audience in each chapter is probably the only way to approach the task.  I think the book may prove especially useful for someone who’s more of a beginner or intermediate because it lets you find your level and as you grow in confidence you can approach more challenging chapters. The mystery is which chapters are for beginner/intermediates?

A rather interesting marketing strategy has been adopted, which has direct bearing on this mystery. The publisher, the Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC), has made some material available for free (sort of). There is no direct charge for the Front Matter, the Preface, the Table of Contents, or Chapter 1: Generating Energy Becomes Personal but you do need registration to access the materials. Plus, I believe they’re having a problem of some kind as the same information was accessed each time I clicked whether it was on the Front Matter, the Preface, or the Table of Contents. As for Chapter 1, you will get an abstract only.

You can purchase chapters individually or buy the hardback version of the book for £66.99 or the full ebook (EPUB) version for £200.97. Chapter 2: No More Rigid Boxes—Fully Flexible and Transparent Electronics (PDF) is available for £28.00. The pricing seems designed to encourage hardback purchases. It seems anyone who only wants one chapter is going to have guess as to whether it was written for an expert, a beginner, or someone in between.

Depending on your circumstances, taking a chance may be worth it. Based on the Nanowerk Spotlight articles, Berger writes with clarity and understanding of his subject matter. I’ve found value even in some of his more challenging pieces.

Directing self-assembly of multiple molecular patterns within a single material

Self-assembly in this context references the notion of ‘bottom-up engineering’, that is, following nature’s engineering process where elements assemble themselves into a plant, animal, or something else. Humans have for centuries used an approach known as ‘top-down engineering’ where we take materials and reform them, e.g., trees into paper or houses.

Theoretically, bottom-up engineering (self-assembly) is more efficient than top-down engineering but we have yet to become as skilled as Nature at the process.

Scientists at the US Brookhaven National Laboratory believe they have taken a step in the right direction with regard to self-assembly. From an Aug. 8, 2016 Brookhaven National Laboratory news release (also on EurekAlert) by Justin Eure describes the research (Note: A link has been removed),

To continue advancing, next-generation electronic devices must fully exploit the nanoscale, where materials span just billionths of a meter. But balancing complexity, precision, and manufacturing scalability on such fantastically small scales is inevitably difficult. Fortunately, some nanomaterials can be coaxed into snapping themselves into desired formations-a process called self-assembly.

Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory have just developed a way to direct the self-assembly of multiple molecular patterns within a single material, producing new nanoscale architectures. The results were published in the journal Nature Communications.

“This is a significant conceptual leap in self-assembly,” said Brookhaven Lab physicist Aaron Stein, lead author on the study. “In the past, we were limited to a single emergent pattern, but this technique breaks that barrier with relative ease. This is significant for basic research, certainly, but it could also change the way we design and manufacture electronics.”

Microchips, for example, use meticulously patterned templates to produce the nanoscale structures that process and store information. Through self-assembly, however, these structures can spontaneously form without that exhaustive preliminary patterning. And now, self-assembly can generate multiple distinct patterns-greatly increasing the complexity of nanostructures that can be formed in a single step.

“This technique fits quite easily into existing microchip fabrication workflows,” said study coauthor Kevin Yager, also a Brookhaven physicist. “It’s exciting to make a fundamental discovery that could one day find its way into our computers.”

The experimental work was conducted entirely at Brookhaven Lab’s Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN), a DOE Office of Science User Facility, leveraging in-house expertise and instrumentation.

Cooking up organized complexity

The collaboration used block copolymers-chains of two distinct molecules linked together-because of their intrinsic ability to self-assemble.

“As powerful as self-assembly is, we suspected that guiding the process would enhance it to create truly ‘responsive’ self-assembly,” said study coauthor Greg Doerk of Brookhaven. “That’s exactly where we pushed it.”

To guide self-assembly, scientists create precise but simple substrate templates. Using a method called electron beam lithography-Stein’s specialty-they etch patterns thousands of times thinner than a human hair on the template surface. They then add a solution containing a set of block copolymers onto the template, spin the substrate to create a thin coating, and “bake” it all in an oven to kick the molecules into formation. Thermal energy drives interaction between the block copolymers and the template, setting the final configuration-in this instance, parallel lines or dots in a grid.

“In conventional self-assembly, the final nanostructures follow the template’s guiding lines, but are of a single pattern type,” Stein said. “But that all just changed.”

Lines and dots, living together

The collaboration had previously discovered that mixing together different block copolymers allowed multiple, co-existing line and dot nanostructures to form.

“We had discovered an exciting phenomenon, but couldn’t select which morphology would emerge,” Yager said. But then the team found that tweaking the substrate changed the structures that emerged. By simply adjusting the spacing and thickness of the lithographic line patterns-easy to fabricate using modern tools-the self-assembling blocks can be locally converted into ultra-thin lines, or high-density arrays of nano-dots.

“We realized that combining our self-assembling materials with nanofabricated guides gave us that elusive control. And, of course, these new geometries are achieved on an incredibly small scale,” said Yager.

“In essence,” said Stein, “we’ve created ‘smart’ templates for nanomaterial self-assembly. How far we can push the technique remains to be seen, but it opens some very promising pathways.”

Gwen Wright, another CFN coauthor, added, “Many nano-fabrication labs should be able to do this tomorrow with their in-house tools-the trick was discovering it was even possible.”

The scientists plan to increase the sophistication of the process, using more complex materials in order to move toward more device-like architectures.

“The ongoing and open collaboration within the CFN made this possible,” said Charles Black, director of the CFN. “We had experts in self-assembly, electron beam lithography, and even electron microscopy to characterize the materials, all under one roof, all pushing the limits of nanoscience.”

Here’s a link to and a citation for the paper,

Selective directed self-assembly of coexisting morphologies using block copolymer blends by A. Stein, G. Wright, K. G. Yager, G. S. Doerk, & C. T. Black. Nature Communications 7, Article number: 12366  doi:10.1038/ncomms12366 Published 02 August 2016

This paper is open access.

Canada’s consultation on nanoscale forms of substances on the Domestic Substances List (DSL)

Yes, there’s a redundancy in the head but there doesn’t seem to be a way around it. Ah well, it seems about seven weeks after Peter Julian (Member of Parliament) introduced his bill in the Canadian House of Commons to regulate nanotechnology (Aug. 29, 2016 posting), Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) and Health Canada (HC) have announced a consultation on nanoscale materials. From an Aug. 4, 2016 posting by Lynn L. Bergeson on Nanotechnology Now (Note: Links have been removed),

On July 27, 2016, Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) and Health Canada (HC) began a consultation on a proposed prioritization approach for nanoscale forms of substances on the Domestic Substances List (DSL). See Canada will use the proposed approach to: (1) establish a list of existing nanomaterials in Canada for prioritization; (2) identify how the information available will be used to inform prioritization of nanomaterials for risk assessment; and (3) outline the proposed outcomes of the prioritization process. In 2015, Canada conducted a mandatory survey under Section 71 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA). The survey applied to persons who manufactured or imported any of 206 nanomaterials at a quantity greater than 100 kilograms (kg) during the 2014 calendar year. See Based on the results of the survey, ECCC and HC will prepare a final list of confirmed existing nanomaterials in Canada and will use the list for subsequent prioritization. ECCC and HC propose that, where possible, the substances identified via the survey be “rolled up into” their broader parent nanomaterial groups for the purposes of prioritization. According to ECCC and HC, this will allow, when possible, a more robust look at the hazard, volume, and use data as appropriate, rather than considering an individual substance-by-substance approach. ECCC and HC state that further consideration for sub-grouping (such as by use, unique property, or functionalization) may need to be considered for prioritization and/or risk assessment. …

You can find the Government of Canada’s 2015 Consultation Document: Proposed Approach to Address Nanoscale Forms of Substances on the Domestic Substances List page here, which set the stage for this prioritization exercise.

You can also find the Proposed prioritization approach for nanoscale forms of substances on the Domestic substances list page here where you’ll find information such as this,

Possible nanomaterial groupings, based on parent substance

Aluminum oxide
Iron (II)/(II/III) oxide
Modified silica
Bismuth oxide
Magnesium oxide
Silicon oxide
Calcium carbonate
Manganese (II & III) oxide
Cerium oxide
Titanium dioxide
Cobalt (II) oxide
Yttrium oxide
Copper (II) oxide
Nickel (II) oxide
Zinc oxide
Quantum dots
Zirconium oxide

You can also find information on how to submit comments,

Stakeholders are invited to submit comments on the content of this consultation document and provide other information that would help inform decision making. Please submit comments to one of the addresses provided below by September 25, 2016 [emphasis mine]. ECCC and HC will respond to comments and adapt the proposed approach based on the feedback received on this document, as described in Section 1.2.

Comments on this consultation document can be submitted to one of the following addresses:

By Mail:
Environment and Climate Change Canada
Substances Management Information Line
Chemicals Management Plan
351 St. Joseph Boulevard
Gatineau, Québec
K1A 0H3

By Email:
Please type “Consultation on Prioritization Approach for Nanomaterials” in the subject line of your message.

By Fax:

Suddenly, there’s lots (relative to the last few years) of action on nanotechnology regulation in Canada.

Promethean Particles claims to be world’s largest nanomaterial production plant

It’s a bit puzzling initially as both the SHYMAN (Sustainable Hydrothermal Manufacturing of Nanomaterials) project and Promethean Particles are claiming to be the world’s biggest nanomaterials production facility. In a battle of press release titles (one from CORDIS and one from the University of Nottingham) it becomes clear after reading both that the SHYMAN project is the name for a European Commission 7th Framework Programme funded project and Promethean Particles, located at the University of Nottingham (UK), is a spinoff from that project. So, both claims are true, although confusing at first glance.

An Aug. 1, 2016 news item on Nanowerk breaks the news about the ‘SHYMAN project’s’ production facility (Note: A link has been removed),

The European SHYMAN project aims to establish continuous hydrothermal synthesis as the most flexible and sustainable process to create nanomaterials at industrial scale. After demonstrating this potential in the lab, the project has now announced the opening of its first facility in Nottingham.

An (Aug. 1, 2016?) CORDIS press release, which originated the news item,

‘This new facility opens up a significant amount of new opportunities for us,’ says Professor Ed Lester, Technical Coordinator of Promethean Particles. This spin-out of the University of Nottingham is in charge of operating the new plant, which is expected to produce over 1 000 tonnes of nanomaterials every year. The production cost is lower than that of other facilities and the chosen production method – continuous hydrothermal synthesis – is expected to impact even markets for which sale prices had so far been an obstacle.

‘We have already had a lot of interest from companies in a diverse range of sectors. From healthcare, where nano-particles can be used in coatings on medical devices, to enhanced fabrics, where nano-materials can add strength and flexibility to textiles, and in printed electronics, as we are able to print materials such as copper,’ Prof. Lester continues. Solvay, Fiat, PPG and Repsol are among the major companies already set to benefit from the plant’s products.

To reach these impressive levels of production, the plant notably relies on high pressure triplex plunger pumps manufactured by Cat Pumps. These pumps have helped the 18-strong consortium to overcome engineering issues related to the mixing of the heated fluid and the aqueous metal salt flow, by creating the continuous pressure and fluid flow necessary to achieve continuous production.

Another enabling technology is the Nozzle Reactor, a customised design that uses buoyancy-induced eddies to produce an ‘ideal’ mixing scenario in a pipe-in-pip concentric configuration in which the internal pipe has an open-ended nozzle. This technology allows Promethean Particles to dramatically improve reproducibility and reliability whilst controlling particles properties such as size, composition and shape.

Betting on hydrothermal synthesis

Started in 2012, SHYMAN built upon the observation that hydrothermal synthesis had numerous advantages compared to alternatives: it doesn’t resort to noxious chemicals, uses relatively simple chemistry relying on cheap precursors, allows straightforward downstream processing, can avoid agglomeration and allows for narrow and well-controlled size and shape distribution.

The optimisation of hydrothermal synthesis has been a key objective of the University of Nottingham for the past 14 years, and SHYMAN is the pinnacle: the project began with the development of bench scale reactors, followed by a 30-times-larger pilot scale reactor. The reactor at the heart of the new production plant is 80 times larger than the latter and features four Cat Pumps Model 3801 high pressure triplex plunger pumps.

‘These are very exciting times for Promethean Particles,’ said Dr Susan Huxtable, Director of Intellectual Property and Commercialisation at the University of Nottingham. ‘The new facility opens up a myriad of opportunities for them to sell their services into new markets right across the world. It is a great example of how many of the technologies developed by academics here at the University of Nottingham have the potential to benefit both industry and society.’

The July 12, 2016 University of Nottingham press release, while covering much of the same ground, offers some additional detail,

The plant [Promethean Particles] was developed as part of a pan-European nano-materials research programme, known as SHYMAN (Sustainable Hydrothermal Manufacturing of Nanomaterials). The project, which had a total value of €9.7 million Euros, included partner universities and businesses from 12 European countries.

The outcome of the project was the creation of the largest multi-material nano-particle plant in the world, based in Nottingham. The plant is now operated by Promethean, and it is able to operate at supercritical conditions, producing up to 200 kg of nano-particles per hour.

You can find out more about the SHYMAN project here and Promethean Particles here.

Watching a nanosized space rocket under a microscope

That is a silent video depicting the research. For anyone who may be puzzled, there’s an Aug. 8, 2016 news item on Nanowerk featuring the research announcement from Michigan Technological University (Note: A link has been removed),

Researchers at the University of Maryland and Michigan Technological University have operated a tiny proposed satellite ion rocket under a microscope to see how it works (Nanotechnology, “Radiation-induced solidification of ionic liquid under extreme electric field”).

The rocket, called an electrospray thruster, is a drop of molten salt. When electricity is applied, it creates a field on the tip of the droplet, until ions begin streaming off the end. The force created by the rocket is less than the weight of a human hair, but in the vacuum of space it is enough to push a small object forward with a constant acceleration. Many of these tiny thrusters packed together could propel a spacecraft over great distances, maybe even to the nearest exoplanet, and they are particularly useful for Earth-orbiting nanosatellites, which can be as small as a shoe box. These thrusters are currently being tested on the European Space Agency’s LISA Pathfinder, which hopes to poise objects in space so precisely that they would only be disturbed by gravitational waves.

An Aug, 8, 2016 Michigan Technological University news release on EurekAlert, which originated the news item, explains further,

these droplet engines have a problem: sometimes they form needle-like spikes that disrupt the way the thruster works – they get in the way of the ions flowing outward and turn the liquid to a gel. Lyon B. King and Kurt Terhune, mechanical engineers at Michigan Tech, wanted to find out how this actually happens.

“The challenge is making measurements of features as small as a few molecules in the presence of a strong electric field, which is why we turned to John Cumings at the University of Maryland,” King says, explaining Cumings is known for his work with challenging materials and that they needed to look for a needle in a haystack. “Getting a close look at these droplets is like looking through a straw to find a penny somewhere on the floor of a room–and if that penny moves out of view, like the tip of the molten salt needles do–then you have to start searching for it all over again.”

At the Advanced Imaging and Microscopy Lab at the University of Maryland, Cumings put the tiny thruster in a transmission electron microscope – an advanced scope that can see things down to millionths of a meter. They watched as the droplet elongated and sharpened to a point, and then started emitting ions. Then the tree-like defects began to appear.

The researchers say that figuring out why these branched structures grow could help prevent them from forming. The problem occurs when high-energy electrons, like those used in the microscope’s imaging beam, impact the fluid causing damage to the molecules that they strike. This damages the molten salt’s molecular structure, so it thickens into a gel and no longer flows properly.

“We were able to watch the dendritic structures accumulate in real time,” says Kurt Terhune, a mechanical engineering graduate student and the study’s lead author. “The specific mechanism still needs to be investigated, but this could have importance for spacecraft in high-radiation environments.”

He adds that the microscope’s electron beam is more powerful than natural settings, but the gelling effect could affect the lifetime of electrospray thrusters in low-Earth and geosynchronous orbit.

Here’s a link to and a citation for the paper,

Radiation-induced solidification of ionic liquid under extreme electric field by Kurt J Terhune, Lyon B King, Kai He, and John Cumings. Nanotechnology, Volume 27, Number 37 DOI: Published 3 August 2016

© 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd

This paper is behind a paywall.

Self-healing diamond-like carbon from the Argonne Lab (US)

Argonne researchers, from left, Subramanian Sankaranarayanan, Badri Narayanan, Ali Erdemir, Giovanni Ramirez and Osman Levent Eryilmaz show off metal engine parts that have been treated with a diamond-like carbon coating similar to one developed and explored by the team. The catalytic coating interacts with engine oil to create a self-healing diamond-like film that could have profound implications for the efficiency and durability of future engines. (photo by Wes Agresta)

Argonne researchers, from left, Subramanian Sankaranarayanan, Badri Narayanan, Ali Erdemir, Giovanni Ramirez and Osman Levent Eryilmaz show off metal engine parts that have been treated with a diamond-like carbon coating similar to one developed and explored by the team. The catalytic coating interacts with engine oil to create a self-healing diamond-like film that could have profound implications for the efficiency and durability of future engines. (photo by Wes Agresta)

An Aug. 5, 2016 news item on ScienceDaily makes the announcement,

Fans of Superman surely recall how the Man of Steel used immense heat and pressure generated by his bare hands to form a diamond out of a lump of coal.

The tribologists — scientists who study friction, wear, and lubrication — and computational materials scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Argonne National Laboratory will probably never be mistaken for superheroes. However, they recently applied the same principles and discovered a revolutionary diamond-like film of their own that is generated by the heat and pressure of an automotive engine.

An Aug. 5, 2016 Argonne National Laboratory news release (also on EurekAlert) by Greg Cunningham, which originated the news item, explains further,

The discovery of this ultra-durable, self-lubricating tribofilm – a film that forms between moving surfaces — was first reported yesterday in the journal Nature. It could have profound implications for the efficiency and durability of future engines and other moving metal parts that can be made to develop self-healing, diamond-like carbon (DLC) tribofilms.

“This is a very unique discovery, and one that was a little unexpected,” said Ali Erdemir, the Argonne Distinguished Fellow who leads the team. “We have developed many types of diamond-like carbon coatings of our own, but we’ve never found one that generates itself by breaking down the molecules of the lubricating oil and can actually regenerate the tribofilm as it is worn away.”

The phenomenon was first discovered several years ago by Erdemir and his colleague Osman Levent Eryilmaz in the Tribology and Thermal-Mechanics Department in Argonne’s Center for Transportation Research. But it took theoretical insight enhanced by the massive computing resources available at Argonne to fully understand what was happening at the molecular level in the experiments. The theoretical understanding was provided by lead theoretical researcher Subramanian Sankaranarayanan and postdoctoral researcher Badri Narayanan from the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM), while the computing power was provided by the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. CNM, ALCF and NERSC are all DOE Office of Science User Facilities.

The original discovery occurred when Erdemir and Eryilmaz decided to see what would happen when a small steel ring was coated with a catalytically active nanocoating – tiny molecules of metals that promote chemical reactions to break down other materials – then subjected to high pressure and heat using a base oil without the complex additives of modern lubricants. When they looked at the ring after the endurance test, they didn’t see the expected rust and surface damage, but an intact ring with an odd blackish deposit on the contact area.

“This test creates extreme contact pressure and temperatures, which are supposed to cause the ring to wear and eventually seize,” said Eryilmaz. “But this ring didn’t significantly wear and this blackish deposit was visible. We said, ‘This material is strange. Maybe this is what is causing this unusual effect.'”

Looking at the deposit using high-powered optical and laser Raman microscopes, the experimentalists realized the deposit was a tribofilm of diamond-like carbon, similar to several other DLCs developed at Argonne in the past. But it worked even better. Tests revealed the DLC tribofilm reduced friction by 25 to 40 percent and that wear was reduced to unmeasurable values.

Further experiments, led by postdoctoral researcher Giovanni Ramirez, revealed that multiple types of catalytic coatings can yield DLC tribofilms. The experiments showed the coatings interact with the oil molecules to create the DLC film, which adheres to the metal surfaces. When the tribofilm is worn away, the catalyst in the coating is re-exposed to the oil, causing the catalysis to restart and develop new layers of tribofilm. The process is self-regulating, keeping the film at consistent thickness. The scientists realized the film was developing spontaneously between the sliding surfaces and was replenishing itself, but they needed to understand why and how.

To provide the theoretical understanding of what the tribology team was seeing in its experiments, they turned to Sankaranarayanan and Narayanan, who used the immense computing power of ALCF’s 10-petaflop supercomputer, Mira. They ran large-scale simulations to understand what was happening at the atomic level, and determined that the catalyst metals in the nanocomposite coatings were stripping hydrogen atoms from the hydrocarbon chains of the lubricating oil, then breaking the chains down into smaller segments. The smaller chains joined together under pressure to create the highly durable DLC tribofilm.

“This is an example of catalysis under extreme conditions created by friction. It is opening up a new field where you are merging catalysis and tribology, which has never been done before,” said Sankaranarayanan. “This new field of tribocatalysis has the potential to change the way we look at lubrication.”

The theorists explored the origins of the catalytic activity to understand how catalysis operates under the extreme heat and pressure in an engine. By gaining this understanding, they were able to predict which catalysts would work, and which would create the most advantageous tribofilms.

“Interestingly, we found several metals or composites that we didn’t think would be catalytically active, but under these circumstances, they performed quite well,” said Narayanan. “This opens up new pathways for scientists to use extreme conditions to enhance catalytic activity.”

The implications of the new tribofilm for efficiency and reliability of engines are huge. Manufacturers already use many different types of coatings — some developed at Argonne — for metal parts in engines and other applications. The problem is those coatings are expensive and difficult to apply, and once they are in use, they only last until the coating wears through. The new catalyst allows the tribofilm to be continually renewed during operation.

Additionally, because the tribofilm develops in the presence of base oil, it could allow manufacturers to reduce, or possibly eliminate, some of the modern anti-friction and anti-wear additives in oil. These additives can decrease the efficiency of vehicle catalytic converters and can be harmful to the environment because of their heavy metal content.

Here’s a link to and a citation for the paper,

Carbon-based tribofilms from lubricating oils by Ali Erdemir, Giovanni Ramirez, Osman L. Eryilmaz, Badri Narayanan, Yifeng Liao, Ganesh Kamath, & Subramanian K. R. S. Sankaranarayanan. Nature 536, 67–71 (04 August 2016) doi:10.1038/nature18948 Published online 03 August 2016

This paper is behind a paywall.

A carbon nanomaterial ‘pot’ for drug delivery

Japanese scientists have developed a new material, which could be used as a carrier for drugs. From an Aug. 5, 2016 news item on,

A novel, pot-shaped, carbon nanomaterial developed by researchers from Kumamoto University, Japan is several times deeper than any hollow carbon nanostructure previously produced. This unique characteristic enables the material to gradually release substances contained within and is expected to be beneficial in applications such as drug delivery systems.

An Aug. 5, 2016 Kumamoto University press release on EurekAlert, which despite the discrepancy in the dates originated the news item, discusses carbon and the discovery in more detail,

Carbon is an element that is light, abundant, has a strong binding force, and eco-friendly. The range of carbon-based materials is expected to become more widespread in the eco-friendly society of the future. Recently, nanosized (one-billionth of a meter) carbon materials have been developed with lengths, widths, or heights below 100 nm [nanometre]. These materials take extreme forms such as tiny grained substances, thin sheet-like substances, and slim fibrous substances. Example of these new materials are fullerenes, which are hollow cage-like carbon molecules; carbon nanotubes, cylindrical nanostructures of carbon molecules; and graphene, one-atom thick sheets of carbon molecules.

Why are these tiny substances needed? One reason is that reactions with other materials can be much larger if a substance has an increased surface area. When using nanomaterials in place of existing materials, it is possible to significantly change surface area without changing weight and volume, thereby improving both size and performance. The development of carbon nanomaterials has provided novel nanostructured materials with shapes and characteristics that surpass existing materials.

Now, research from the laboratory of Kumamoto University’s Associate Prof. Yokoi has resulted in the successful development of a container-type carbon nanomaterial with a much deeper orifice than that found in similar materials. To create the new material, researchers used their own, newly developed method of material synthesis. The container-shaped nanomaterial has a complex form consisting of varied layers of stacked graphene at the bottom, the body, and the neck areas of the container, and the graphene edges along the outer surface of the body were found to be very dense. Due to these innovate features, Associate Prof. Yokoi and colleagues named the material the “carbon nanopot.”

The carbon nanopot has an outer diameter of 20 ~ 40 nm, an inner diameter of 5 ~ 30 nm, and a length of 100 ~ 200 nm. During its creation, the carbon nanopot is linked to a carbon nanofiber with a length of 20 ~ 100 μm [micrometre] meaning that the carbon nanopot is also available as a carbon nanofiber. At the junction between nanopots, the bottom of one pot simply sits on the opening of the next without sharing a graphene sheet connection. Consequently, separating nanopots is very easy.

“From a detailed surface analysis, hydrophilic hydroxyl groups were found clustered along the outer surface of the carbon nanopot body,” said Associate Prof. Yokoi. “Graphene is usually hydrophobic however, if hydroxyl groups are densely packed on the outer surface of the body, that area will be hydrophilic. In other words, carbon nanopots could be a unique nanomaterial with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic characteristics. We are currently in the process of performing a more sophisticated surface analysis in order to get that assurance.”

Since this new carbon nanopot has a relatively deep orifice, one of its expected uses is to improve drug delivery systems by acting as a new foundation for medicine to be carried into and be absorbed by the body.

Here’s a link to and a citation for the paper,

Novel pot-shaped carbon nanomaterial synthesized in a submarine-style substrate heating CVD method by Hiroyuki Yokoi, Kazuto Hatakeyama, Takaaki Taniguchi, Michio Koinuma, Masahiro Hara, and Yasumichi Matsumoto. Journal of Materials Research / Volume 31 / Issue 01 / 2016, pp 117-126 DOI: (About DOI) Published online: 13 January 2016

Copyright © Materials Research Society 2016

I’m not sure why there’s this push for publicity so long after the publication date. In any event, this paper is behind a paywall.

Everything old is new again: Canadian Parliament holds first reading of another bill to regulate nanotechnlogy

Back in March 2010, Canadian New Democratic Party (NDP) Member of Parliament (MP) Peter Julian introduced a bill to regulate nanotechnology (Bill C-494) in Canada. The Conservative government was in power at the time. I can’t remember how many readings it received but it never did get passed into legislation. Now, Mr. Julian is trying again and, coincidentally or not, the Liberals are in power this time. A July 26, 2016 post by Lynn L. Bergeson and Carla N. Hutton for the National Law Review (Note: Links have been removed),

On June 8, 2016, the Canadian House of Commons held its first reading of an Act to amend the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA) (nanotechnology) (C-287).  The bill would add Part 6.1 to CEPA primarily to implement procedures for the investigation and assessment of nanomaterials. …

The bill would define nanomaterial as any manufactured substance or product or any component material, ingredient, device or structure that:  (a) is within the nanoscale (one nanometer (nm) up to and including 100 nm), in at least one external dimension; or (b) if it is not within the nanoscale, exhibits one or more properties that are attributable to the size of a substance and size effects.  The bill mandates a risk assessment process to identify the potential benefits and possible risks of nanotechnologies before nanoproducts enter the market.  It would also create a national inventory regarding nanotechnology, including nanomaterials and nanoparticles, using information collected under CEPA Sections 46 and 71 and “any other information to which the Ministers have access.” On July 25, 2015, Canada published a notice announcing a mandatory survey under CEPA Section 71(1)(b) with respect to certain nanomaterials in Canadian commerce.  …

I do have a few observations about the proposed bill. First, it’s more specific than what we have in place now. As I understand current CEPA regulations, they do not cover materials at the nanoscale which are already imported and/or produced at the macroscale and are considered safe, e.g. titanium dioxide. It is assumed that if they’re safe at the macroscale, they will be safe at the nanoscale. I gather this bill is designed to change that status.

Second, there is no mention in Julian’s press release (text to follow) of the joint Canada-United States Regulatory Cooperation Council (RCC) Nanotechnology Initiative which was designed to harmonize US and Canadian regulatory approaches to nanotechnology. Would bill C-287 introduce less harmony or was it designed to harmonize our approaches?

Third, I don’t see a big problem with the idea of an inventory, the issue is always implementation.

Finally, it appears that this bill means more bureaucrats or computerized systems and I’m not sure it addresses the problem that I believe it is trying to address: how to deal with uncertainty about the risks and hazards of an emerging technology while meeting demands for economic progress.

Very finally, here’s Peter Julian’s June 8, 2016 press release,

Julian’s bill to include Nanotechnology under Environmental Protection Act

You can watch the video here:…

OTTAWA – Today [June 8, 2016], Peter Julian, MP (New Westminster-Burnaby) re-introduced Bill C-287 in the House of Commons, which aims to include a framework that would regulate nanotechnology in the Canadian Environmental Protection Act.

“I first introduced this Bill in 2010. I am pleased to see that some of the aspects of this Bill are being considered by Health Canada and Environment Canada, such as the development of a registry for nanomaterials in commerce and use in Canada. However, there is much more that needs to be done to ensure the responsible use of nanotechnologies in Canada”, said Julian.

Nanotechnology is the application of science and technology to manipulate matter at the atomic or molecular level. Nanomaterials are any ingredient, device, or structure that is between 1 and 100 nm. These materials are present in more than 1000 consumer products, including food and cosmetics. The increasing proliferation of nanoproducts has not been met with an adequate regulatory framework.

Julian’s Bill C-287 would establish a balanced approach ensuring the responsible development of nanotechnology and the safe use off nanomaterials in Canada. The Bill mandates a risk assessment process to identify the potential benefits and possible risks of nanotechnologies before nanoproducts enter the market. It would also require a comprehensive, publicly accessible database that lists existing nanomaterials identified by the Government of Canada.

“While nanotechnology can be very beneficial to people, there are certain risks to it as well. We must identify and mitigate possible risks to better protect the environment and human health before they become an issue. Canada must ensure our regulatory processes ensure nanomaterial safety before the introduction of these substances in Canada”, said Julian.

I’m including links to my 2010 email interview with Peter Julian (published in three parts),

March 24, 2010 (Part one)

March 25, 2010 (Part two)

March 26, 2010 (Part three)

I also covered a hearing on nanomaterials and safety held by the Canadian House of Commons Standing Committee on Health on June 10, 2010 in a June 23, 2010 posting.

2016 Canadian Science Policy Conference: supersaver registration ends Sept. 6, 2016

It’s a little early to be talking about a conference being held in November but if you want to save money, this would be the time to register for the 2016 Canadian Science Policy Conference (CSPC) being held in Ottawa (the nation’s capital) from Nov. 8 -10, 2016. Here’s more about the conference and preconference programmes from an Aug. 25, 2016 notice (received by email),

Pre-conference Events

CSPC 2016 C features several pre-conference opportunities for you to choose from.

A total six of events will take place on Tuesday November 8 [2016], before the CSPC conference. Four symposia and a workshop 8:00 am to 3:00 pm and one roundtable runs from 1 – 3 pm. You can register for these events separately or combine them with your conference registration.

1st Canadian symposium on“Achieving Diversity in STEM, Advancing Innovation,” – organized by Faculty of Science, Ryerson University

2nd National Symposium on “Science Diplomacy” – organized by CSPC

2nd National Symposium on “Evidence-Based Decision Making” – organized by Council of Canadian Academies

1st Canadian Symposium on “Space Policy” – organized by Canadian Space Commerce Association
Workshop: “Science Policy 101” – organized by CSPC“

The Role of Early Career Scientists in Research Policy Development”, as part of 2016 Henry G. Friesen International Prize in Health Research Program, organized by Friends of CIHR (FCIHR)

More information on program page

They are still adding to the programme but here are a few session titles that are available (from the CSPC 2016 program page),

Fertile Ground: How Incubators and Accelerators Drive Innovation / Un terrain fertile : comment les incubateurs et les accélérateurs stimulent l’innovation

Science for diplomacy, have we got what it takes? / La science au service de la diplomatie ; avons-nous ce qu’il faut ?

A Systems-based Approach to Evidence-Based Policy Decision-Making: Skills, Tools & Mindset for Effective Decision Making / Une approche systémique pour la prise de décisions éclairées par des données probantes en matière de politiques : compétences, outil

Driving Innovation through Health Research – the role stemcell & regenerative medicine sector / Impulser l’innovation au moyen de la recherche en santé : le rôle des secteurs des cellules souches et de la médecine régénératrice

Linking Science Producers to Users, A Case Study: Designing a proposed pan-Canadian oil spill research Network of Expertise / L’établissement de liens entre les producteurs et les utilisateurs de la science, une étude de cas : la conception d’un projet pa [sic]

TED Talk Innovation 2: a) Entrepreneurial Skills Training for the New Economy: Case Studies; b) Partnered Innovation: The Role of Colleges in Canada’s Innovation Ecosystem; c) Alberta – The Illusion and Impact of Sustained Prosperity

It’s exciting to see the CSPC grow with a number of new preconference programs and some new directions for the conference program but there are a couple of areas for which there aren’t any sessions (yet?): (a) science communication, (b) risk, and (c) public engagement with emerging technology. I’m particularly concerned with the emerging technology topic,. For example, with the emergence of robots and increasingly sophisticated AI (artificial intelligence) systems, it would be nice to see a session or two devoted to future public policy issues.

I have previously featured the 2016 CSPC in a May 19, 2016 posting about their call for proposals and the conference themes,

From a May 4, 2016 call for proposals (received via email), here are the conference themes and information about submitting ideas,

Here are CSPC 2016 Themes:

A New Culture of Policy Making and Evidence-Based Decision-Making: Horizons and Challenges

A New Innovation Agenda or Canada: What are we building?

Science Funding Review: New Visions and New Directions

Clean Energy and Climate Change as Global Priorities: Implications for Canada?

Canada’s Return to the International Stage: How Can Science Help Foreign Policy?

Super saver registration ends on Sept. 6, 2016 at 11:59 pm EST, presumably.