Tag Archives: Australian National University (ANU)

Materials that may protect astronauts from radiation in space

Sparing astronauts from harmful radiation  is one of the goals for this project according to a July 3, 2017 news item on Nanowerk (Note: A link has been removed),

Scientists at The Australian National University (ANU) have designed a new nano material that can reflect or transmit light on demand with temperature control, opening the door to technology that protects astronauts in space from harmful radiation (Advanced Functional Materials, “Reversible Thermal Tuning of All-Dielectric Metasurfaces”).

Lead researcher Dr Mohsen Rahmani from ANU said the material was so thin that hundreds of layers could fit on the tip of a needle and could be applied to any surface, including spacesuits.

The first speaker’s enthusiasm leaps off the screen,

For whose who prefer to read their news, a July 4, 2017 ANU press release, which originated the news item, provides more detail,

“Our invention has a lot of potential applications, such as protecting astronauts or satellites with an ultra-thin film that can be adjusted to reflect various dangerous ultraviolet or infrared radiation in different environments,” said Dr Rahmani, an Australian Research Council (ARC) Discovery Early Career Research Fellow at the Nonlinear Physics Centre within the ANU Research School of Physics and Engineering.

“Our technology significantly increases the resistance threshold against harmful radiation compared to today’s technologies, which rely on absorbing radiation with thick filters.”

Co-researcher Associate Professor Andrey Miroshnichenko said the invention could be tailored for other light spectrums including visible light, which opened up a whole array of innovations, including architectural and energy saving applications.

“For instance, you could have a window that can turn into a mirror in a bathroom on demand, or control the amount of light passing through your house windows in different seasons,” said Dr Miroshnichenko from the Nonlinear Physics Centre within the ANU Research School of Physics and Engineering.

“What I love about this invention is that the design involved different research disciplines including physics, materials science and engineering.”

Co-lead researcher Dr Lei Xu said achieving cost-efficient and confined temperature control such as local heating was feasible.

“Much like your car has a series of parallel resistive wires on the back windscreen to defog the rear view, a similar arrangement could be used with our invention to confine the temperature control to a precise location,” said Dr Xu from the Nonlinear Physics Centre within the ANU Research School of Physics and Engineering.

The innovation builds on more than 15 years of research supported by the ARC through CUDOS, a Centre of Excellence, and the Australian National Fabrication Facility.

Here’s a link to and a citation for the paper,

Reversible Thermal Tuning of All-Dielectric Metasurfaces by Mohsen Rahmani, Lei Xu, Andrey E. Miroshnichenko, Andrei Komar, Rocio Camacho-Morales, Haitao Chen, Yair Zárate, Sergey Kruk, Guoquan Zhang, Dragomir N. Neshev, and Yuri S. Kivshar. Advanced Functional Materials DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700580 Version of Record online: 3 JUL 2017

© 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

This paper is behind a paywall.

Quantum device provides capabilities of Dr. Who’s sonic screwdriver and Star Trek’s tricorder

I think these Australian scientists are bigger fans of Dr. Who than Star Trek if I read this March 8, 2017 news item on Nanowerk rightly (Note: A link has been removed),

Physicists have designed a handheld device inspired by the sonic screwdriver in Doctor Who and the tricorder in Star Trek that will use the power of MRI and mass spectrometry to perform a chemical analysis of objects (Nano Letters, “Nanomechanical Sensing Using Spins in Diamond”).

The sonic screwdriver is a tool used in Doctor Who to scan and identify matter, among other functions, while the multi-purpose tricorder in Star Trek can provide a detailed analysis of living things.

This video confirms the scientists’ Dr. Who fanhood,

A March 8, 2017 Australian National University (ANU) news release, which originated the news item, provides more technical detail about the research,

Lead researcher Dr Marcus Doherty from ANU said the team had proven the concept of a diamond-based quantum device to perform similar functions to these science fiction tools and would now develop a prototype.

“Laboratories and hospitals will have the power to do full chemical analyses to solve complex problems with our device that they can afford and move around easily,” said Dr Doherty from the ANU Research School of Physics and Engineering (RSPE).

“This device is going to enable many people to use powerful instruments like molecular MRI machines and mass spectrometers much more readily.”

Dr Doherty said medical researchers could use the device to weigh and identify complex molecules such as proteins, which drive diseases, such as cancer, and cures for those diseases.

“Every great advance for microscopy has driven scientific revolution,” he said.

“Our invention will help to solve many complex problems in a wide range of areas, including medical, environmental and biosecurity research.”

Molecular MRI is a form of the common medical imaging technology that is capable of identifying the chemical composition of individual molecules, while mass spectrometers measure the masses within a sample.

Co-researcher Michael Barson said the device would use tiny defects in a diamond to measure the mass and chemical composition of molecules with advanced quantum techniques borrowed from atomic clocks and gravitational wave detectors.

“For the mass spectrometry, when a molecule attaches to the diamond device, its mass changes, which changes the frequency, and we measure the change in frequency using the defects in the diamond,” said Mr Barson, a PhD student from RSPE.

“For the MRI, we are looking at how the magnetic fields in the molecule will influence the defects as well.”

Here’s a link to and a citation for the paper,

Nanomechanical Sensing Using Spins in Diamond by Michael S. J. Barson, Phani Peddibhota, Preeti Ovartchaiyapong, Kumaravelu Ganesan, Richard L. Taylor, Matthew Gebert, Zoe Mielens, Berndt Koslowski, David A. Simpson, Liam P. McGuinness, Jeffrey McCallum, Steven Prawer, Shinobu Onoda, Takeshi Ohshima, Ania C. Bleszynski Jayich, Fedor Jelezko, Neil B. Manson, and Marcus W. Doherty. Nano Lett., 2017, 17 (3), pp 1496–1503 DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b04544 Publication Date (Web): February 1, 2017

Copyright © 2017 American Chemical Society

This paper is behind a paywall.