Tag Archives: India

NASA (US National Aeronautics and Space Administration), one of the world’s largest hackathons, and women

Elizabeth Segran’s April 19, 2016 article for Fast Company profiles some work being done at NASA (US National Aeronautics and Space Administration) to encourage more women to participate in their hackathons (Note: A link has been removed),

For the past four years, NASA has hosted the Space Apps Challenge, one of the biggest hackathons on the planet. Last year, 14,264 people gathered in 133 locations for 48 to 72 hours to create apps using NASA’s data. A team in Lome, Togo, built a clean water mapping app; one in Bangalore, India, created a desktop planetarium; another in Pasadena, California, created a pocket assistant for astronauts. This year’s hackathon happens this upcoming weekend [April 22 – 24, 2016].

While NASA has been able to attract participants from all corners of the globe, it has consistently struggled to get women involved. NASA is working very hard to change this. “The attendance is generally 80% male,” says Beth Beck, NASA’s open innovation project manager, who runs the Space Apps Hackathon. “It’s more everyman than everywoman.”

There is a mention of a 2015 Canadian hackathon and an observation Beth Beck made at the time (from the Segran article),

Beck noticed that female participation in hackathons seemed to drop after the middle school years. At last year’s hackathon in Toronto, for instance, there were two sections: one for students and one for adults. Girls made up at least half of the student participants. “The middle school girls looked like honey bees, running around in little packs to learn about the technology,” she says. “But in the main hacking area, it was all guys. I wanted to know what happens that makes them lose their curiosity and enthusiasm.”

Beck’s further observations led to these conclusions,

It turns out that women are not significantly more interested in certain subjects than others. What they cared about most was being able to explore these topics in a space that felt friendly and supportive. “They are looking for signals that they will be in a safe space where they feel like they belong,” Beck says. Often, these signals are very straightforward: they seek out pictures of women on the event’s webpage and look for women’s names on the speaker panels and planning committees. …

Another interesting thing that Beck discovered is that women who are brave enough to attend these events want to go a day early to get the lay of the land and perhaps form a team in advance. They want to become more comfortable with the physical space where the hackathon will take place and learn as much as possible about the topics. “When the hackathon then becomes flooded with men, they feel ready for it,” she says.

While men described hacking as something that they did in their spare time, the research showed that many women often had many other family responsibilities and couldn’t just attend a hackathon for fun. And this wasn’t just true in developing countries, where girls were often tasked with childcare and chores, while boys could focus on science. In the U.S., events where there was childcare provided were much more highly attended by women than those that did not have that option. …

NASA’s hackathons are open to people with diverse skill sets—not just people who know code. Beck has found that men are more likely to participate because they are interested in space; they simply show up with ideas. Women, on the other hand, need to feel like they have the appropriate battery of skills to contribute. With this knowledge, Beck has found it helpful to make it clear that each team needs strong storytellers who can explain the value of the app. …

The folks at NASA are still working at implementing these ideas and Segran’s article describes the initiatives and includes this story (Note: A link has been removed),

Last year [2015], for instance, two female students in Cairo noticed that the hackathon has specifically called out to women and they wanted to host a local chapter of the hackathon. Their professor, however, told them that women could not host the event. The women reached out to NASA themselves and Beck wrote to them personally, saying that she highly encouraged them to create their own event. That Cairo event ended up being the largest Space Apps hackathon in the world, with 700 participants and a wait list of 300. …

Kudos to Beth Beck, NASA, and those two women in Cairo.

For anyone (male/female) interested in the 2016 hackathon, it’s being held this weekend (April 22 – 24, 2016), from the NASA Space Apps Challenge homepage,

For 48-72 hours across the world, problem solvers like you join us for NASA’s International Space Apps Challenge, one of the largest hackathons in the universe. Empowered by open data, you collaborate with strangers, colleagues, friends, and family to solve perplexing challenges in new and unexpected ways — from designing an interactive space glove to natural language processing to clean water mapping. Join us on our open data mission, and show us how you innovate.

Not Just For Coders

Beginners, students, experts, engineers, makers, artists, storytellers — Space Apps is for you! We welcome all passionate problem solvers to join our community of innovators. Citizens like you have already created thousands of open-source solutions together through code, data visualizations, hardware and design. How will you make your global impact?

It’s too late to become a host for the hackathon but you may be able to find a location for one somewhere near you on the hackathon website’s Locations page. There are three locations in Canada for the 2016 edition: Toronto (waitlist), Winnipeg (still open), and Waterloo (waitlist).

Minimalist DNA nanodevices perform bio-analytical chemistry inside live cells

A comparison of minimalist versus baroque architecture is one of the more startling elements in this March 24, 2016 news item on Nanowerk about a scientist working with DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) nanodevices,

Some biochemistry laboratories fashion proteins into complex shapes, constructing the DNA nanotechnological equivalent of Baroque or Rococo architecture. Yamuna Krishnan, however, prefers structurally minimalist devices.

“Our lab’s philosophy is one of minimalist design,” said Krishnan, a professor of chemistry at the University of Chicago. “It borders on brutalist. Functional with zero bells and whistles. There are several labs that design DNA into wonderful shapes, but inside a living system, you need as little DNA as possible to get the job done.”

That job is to act as drug-delivery capsules or as biomedical diagnostic tools.

A March 24, 2016 University of Chicago news release by Steve Koppes, which originated the news item, provides some background information before launching into the latest news,

In 2011, Krishnan and her group, then at the National Centre for Biological Sciences in Bangalore, India, became the first to demonstrate the functioning of a DNA nanomachine inside a living organism. This nanomachine, called I-switch, measured subcellular pH with a high degree of accuracy. Since 2011, Krishnan and her team have developed a palette of pH sensors, each keyed to the pH of the target organelle.

Last summer, the team reported another achievement: the development of a DNA nanosensor that can measure the physiological concentration of chloride with a high degree of accuracy.

“Yamuna Krishnan is one of the leading practitioners of biologically oriented DNA nanotechnology,” said Nadrian Seeman, the father of the field and the Margaret and Herman Sokol Professor of Chemistry at New York University. “These types of intracellular sensors are unique to my knowledge, and represent a major advance for the field of DNA nanotechnology.”

Chloride sensor

Chloride is the single most abundant, soluble, negatively charged molecule in the body. And yet until the Krishnan group introduced its chloride sensor—called Clensor—there was no effective and practical way to measure intracellular stores of chloride.

“What is especially interesting about this sensor is that it is completely pH independent,” Seeman said, a significant departure from Krishnan’s previous scheme. “She spent a number of years developing pH sensors that work intra-cellularly and provide a fluorescent signal as a consequence of a shift in pH.”

The ability to record chloride concentrations is important for many reasons. Chloride plays an important role in neurobiology, for example. But calcium and sodium—both positively charged ions—tend to grab most of the neurobiological glory because of their role in neuron excitation.

“But if you want your neuron to fire again, you have to bring it back to its normal state. You have to stop it firing,” Krishnan said. This is called “neuronal inhibition,” which chloride does.

“It’s important in order to reset your neuron for a second round of firing, otherwise we would all be able to use our brains only once,” she said.

Under normal circumstances, the transport of chloride ions helps the body produce thin, freely flowing mucus. But a genetic defect results in a life-threatening disease: cystic fibrosis. Clensor’s capacity to measure and visualize protein activity of molecules like the one related to cystic fibrosis transmembrane could lead to high-throughput assays to screen for chemicals that would restore normal functioning of the chloride channel.

Nine diseases

“One could use this to look at chloride ion channel activity in a variety of diseases,” Krishnan said. “Humans have nine chloride ion channels, and the mutation of each of these channels results in nine different diseases.” Among them are osteopetrosis, deafness, muscular dystrophy and Best’s macular dystrophy.

The pH-sensing capabilities of the I-switch, meanwhile, are important because cells contain multiple organelles that maintain specific values of acidity. Cells need these different microenvironments to carry out specialized chemical reactions.

“Each subcellular organelle has a specific resting value of acidity, and that acidity is crucial to its function,” Krishnan said. “When the pH is not the value that it’s meant to be, it results in a range of different diseases.”

There are 70 rare diseases called lysosomal storage disorders, which are progressive and often fatal. Each one—including Batten disease, Niemann-Pick disease, Pompe disease and Tay-Sachs disease—represents a different way a lysosome can go bad. She likened a defective lysosome to a garbage bin that never gets emptied.

“The lysosome is basically responsible for chewing up all the garbage and making sure it’s either reused or got rid of. It’s the most acidic organelle in the cell.” And that acidity is crucial for the degradation process.

Although there are 70 lysosomal storage diseases, small molecule drugs are available for only a few of them. These existing treatments—enzyme-replacement therapies—are expensive and are only palliative treatments. One goal of Krishnan’s group is to demonstrate the utility of their pH sensors to discover new biological insights into these diseases. Developing small molecule drugs—which are structurally simpler and easier to manufacture than traditional biological drugs—could help significantly.

“If we can do this for one or two lysosomal diseases, there’ll be hope for the other 68,” Krishnan said.

Here are links to and citations for the 2015 and 2011 papers,

A pH-independent DNA nanodevice for quantifying chloride transport in organelles of living cells by Sonali Saha, Ved Prakash, Saheli Halder, Kasturi Chakraborty, & Yamuna Krishnan. Nature Nanotechnology 10, 645–651 (2015)  doi:10.1038/nnano.2015.130 Published online 22 June 2015

An autonomous DNA nanomachine maps spatiotemporal pH changes in a multicellular living organism by Sunaina Surana, Jaffar M. Bhat, Sandhya P. Koushika, & Yamuna Krishnan. Nature Communications 2, Article number: 340  doi:10.1038/ncomms1340 Published 07 June 2011

The 2015 paper is behind a paywall but the 2011 paper is open access.

Identifying performance problems in nanoresonators

Use of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) can now be maximised due to a technique developed by researchers at the Commissariat a l’Energie Atomique (CEA) and the University of Grenoble-Alpes (France). From a March 7, 2016 news item on ScienceDaily,

A joint CEA / University of Grenoble-Alpes research team, together with their international partners, have developed a diagnostic technique capable of identifying performance problems in nanoresonators, a type of nanodetector used in research and industry. These nanoelectromechanical systems, or NEMS, have never been used to their maximum capabilities. The detection limits observed in practice have always been well below the theoretical limit and, until now, this difference has remained unexplained. Using a totally new approach, the researchers have now succeeded in evaluating and explaining this phenomenon. Their results, described in the February 29 [2016] issue of Nature Nanotechnology, should now make it possible to find ways of overcoming this performance shortfall.

A Feb. 29, 2016 CEA press release, which originated the news item, provides more detail about NEMS and about the new technique,

NEMS have many applications, including the measurement of mass or force. Like a tiny violin string, a nanoresonator vibrates at a precise resonant frequency. This frequency changes if gas molecules or biological particles settle on the nanoresonator surface. This change in frequency can then be used to detect or identify the substance, enabling a medical diagnosis, for example. The extremely small dimensions of these devices (less than one millionth of a meter) make the detectors highly sensitive.

However, this resolution is constrained by a detection limit. Background noise is present in addition to the wanted measurement signal. Researchers have always considered this background noise to be an intrinsic characteristic of these systems (see Figure 2 [not reproduced here]). Despite the noise levels being significantly greater than predicted by theory, the impossibility of understanding the underlying phenomena has, until now, led the research community to ignore them.

The CEA-Leti research team and their partners reviewed all the frequency stability measurements in the literature, and identified a difference of several orders of magnitude between the accepted theoretical limits and experimental measurements.

In addition to evaluating this shortfall, the researchers also developed a diagnostic technique that could be applied to each individual nanoresonator, using their own high-purity monocrystalline silicon resonators to investigate the problem.

The resonant frequency of a nanoresonator is determined by the geometry of the resonator and the type of material used in its manufacture. It is therefore theoretically fixed. By forcing the resonator to vibrate at defined frequencies close to the resonant frequency, the CEA-Leti researchers have been able to demonstrate a secondary effect that interferes with the resolution of the system and its detection limit in addition to the background noise. This effect causes slight variations in the resonant frequency. These fluctuations in the resonant frequency result from the extreme sensitivity of these systems. While capable of detecting tiny changes in mass and force, they are also very sensitive to minute variations in temperature and the movements of molecules on their surface. At the nano scale, these parameters cannot be ignored as they impose a significant limit on the performance of nanoresonators. For example, a tiny change in temperature can change the parameters of the device material, and hence its frequency. These variations can be rapid and random.

The experimental technique developed by the team makes it possible to evaluate the loss of resolution and to determine whether it is caused by the intrinsic limits of the system or by a secondary fluctuation that can therefore by corrected. A patent has been applied for covering this technique. The research team has also shown that none of the theoretical hypotheses so far advanced to explain these fluctuations in the resonant frequency can currently explain the observed level of variation.

The research team will therefore continue experimental work to explore the physical origin of these fluctuations, with the aim of achieving a significant improvement in the performance of nanoresonators.

The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore, and the California Institute of Technology (USA) have also participated in this study. The authors have received funding from the Leti Carnot Institute (NEMS-MS project) and the European Union (ERC Consolidator Grant – Enlightened project).

Here’s a link to and a citation for the paper,

Frequency fluctuations in silicon nanoresonators by Marc Sansa, Eric Sage, Elizabeth C. Bullard, Marc Gély, Thomas Alava, Eric Colinet, Akshay K. Naik, Luis Guillermo Villanueva, Laurent Duraffourg, Michael L. Roukes, Guillaume Jourdan & Sébastien Hentz. Nature Nanotechnology (2016) doi:10.1038/nnano.2016.19 Published online 29 February 2016

This paper is behind a paywall.

Indian researchers establish a multiplex number to identify efficiency of multilevel resistive switching devices

There’s a Feb. 1, 2016 Nanowerk Spotlight article by Dr. Abhay Sagade of Cambridge University (UK) about defining efficiency in memristive devices,

In a recent study, researchers at the Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR), Bangalore, India, have defined a new figure-of-merit to identify the efficiency of resistive switching devices with multiple memory states. The research was carried out in collaboration with the Indian Institute of Technology Madras (IITM), Chennai, and financially supported by Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi.

The scientists identified the versatility of palladium oxide (PdO) as a novel resistive switching material for use in resistive memory devices. Due to the availability to switch multiple redox states in the PdO system, researchers have controlled it by applying different amplitudes of voltage pulses.

To date, many materials have shown multiple memory states but there have been no efforts to define the ability of the fabricated device to switch between all possible memory states.

In this present report, the authors have defined the efficacy in a term coined as “multiplex number (M)” to quantify the performance of a multiple memory switching device:

For the PdO MRS device with five memory states, the multiplex number is found to be 5.7, which translates to 70% efficiency in switching. This is the highest value of M observed in any multiple memory device.

As multilevel resistive switching devices are expected to have great significance in futuristic brain-like memory devices [neuromorphic engineering products], the definition of their efficiency will provide a boost to the field. The number M will assist researches as well as technologist in classifying and deciding the true merit of their memory devices.

Here’s a link to and a citation for the paper Sagade is discussing,

Defining Switching Efficiency of Multilevel Resistive Memory with PdO as an Example by K. D. M. Rao, Abhay A. Sagade, Robin John, T. Pradeep and G. U. Kulkarni. Advanced Electronic Materials Volume 2, Issue 2, February 2016 DOI: 10.1002/aelm.201500286

© 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

This article is behind a paywall.

Cellulose-based nanogenerators to power biomedical implants?

This cellulose nanogenerator research comes from India. A Jan. 27, 2016 American Chemical Society (ACS) news release makes the announcement,

Implantable electronics that can deliver drugs, monitor vital signs and perform other health-related roles are on the horizon. But finding a way to power them remains a challenge. Now scientists have built a flexible nanogenerator out of cellulose, an abundant natural material, that could potentially harvest energy from the body — its heartbeats, blood flow and other almost imperceptible but constant movements. …

Efforts to convert the energy of motion — from footsteps, ocean waves, wind and other movement sources — are well underway. Many of these developing technologies are designed with the goal of powering everyday gadgets and even buildings. As such, they don’t need to bend and are often made with stiff materials. But to power biomedical devices inside the body, a flexible generator could provide more versatility. So Md. Mehebub Alam and Dipankar Mandal at Jadavpur University in India set out to design one.

The researchers turned to cellulose, the most abundant biopolymer on earth, and mixed it in a simple process with a kind of silicone called polydimethylsiloxane — the stuff of breast implants — and carbon nanotubes. Repeated pressing on the resulting nanogenerator lit up about two dozen LEDs instantly. It also charged capacitors that powered a portable LCD, a calculator and a wrist watch. And because cellulose is non-toxic, the researchers say the device could potentially be implanted in the body and harvest its internal stretches, vibrations and other movements [also known as, harvesting biomechanical motion].

Here’s a link to and a citation for the paper,

Native Cellulose Microfiber-Based Hybrid Piezoelectric Generator for Mechanical Energy Harvesting Utility by
Md. Mehebub Alam and Dipankar Mandal. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2016, 8 (3), pp 1555–1558 DOI: 10.1021/acsami.5b08168 Publication Date (Web): January 11, 2016

Copyright © 2016 American Chemical Society

This paper is behind a paywall.

I did take a peek at the paper to see if I could determine whether or not they had used wood-derived cellulose and whether cellulose nanocrystals had been used. Based on the references cited for the paper, I think the answer to both questions is yes.

My latest piece on harvesting biomechanical motion is a June 24, 2014 post where I highlight a research project in Korea and another one in the UK and give links to previous posts on the topic.

Hexanal and preventing (or diminishing) fruit spoilage

More mangoes thanks to an Indian-Sri Lankan-Canadian nanotechnologyresearch project is a Feb. 9, 2015 posting where I highlighted (not for the first time) a three country research project utilizing hexanal in boxes for fruit (mango) storage,

I’ve been wondering what happened since I posted about this ‘mango’ project some years ago (my June 21, 2012 posting and my Nov. 1, 2012 posting) so, it’s nice to get an update from this Fresh Fruit Portal Feb. 4, 2015 posting,

Developed by Canadian, Indian and Sri Lankan researchers in a collaborative project funded by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), the nanotech mango boxes are said to improve the fruit’s resilience and therefore boost quality over long shipping distances.

The project – which also includes the Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India and the Industrial Technical Institute, Sri Lanka – has tested the use of the bio-compound hexanal, an artificially synthesized version of a natural substance produced by injured plants to reduce post-harvest losses.

In the Feb. 9, 2015 posting I was featuring the project again as it had received new funding,

  • Researchers from the University of Guelph, Canada, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India, and the Industrial Technical Institute, Sri Lanka, have shown that a natural compound known as hexanal delays the ripening of mangos. Using nanotechnology, the team will continue to develop hexanal-impregnated packaging and biowax coatings to improve the fruit’s resilience during handling and shipping for use in Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean. It will also expand its research to include other fruit and look at ways to commercialize the technologies.

New funding will allow the research teams to further develop the new technologies and involve partners who can bring them to market to reach greater numbers of small-holder farmers.

A Dec. 29, 2015 article (Life of temperate fruits in orchards extended, thanks to nanotech) in The Hindu newspaper provides an update on the collaboration,

Talking to mediapersons after taking part in a workshop on ‘Enhanced Preservation of Fruits using Nanotechnology Project’ held at the Horticultural College and Research Institute, Periyakulam near here on Monday [Dec. 28, 2015], he [K.S. Subramanian, Professor, Department of Nano Science and Technology, TNAU, Coimbatore] said countries like Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Kenya and West Indies will benefit. Post-harvest loss in African countries was approximately 80 per cent, whereas it was 25 to 30 per cent in India, he said.

With the funds sanctioned by Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development and International Development Research Centre, Canada, the TN Agricultural University, Coimbatore, involving scientists in University of Guelph, Canada, Industrial Technology Institute, Colombo, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania, University of Nairobi [Kenya], University of West Indies, Trinidad and Tobago, have jointly developed Hexanal formulation, a nano-emulsion, to minimise post harvest loss and extend shelf life of mango.

Field trials have been carried out successfully in Dharmapuri and Krishnagiri on five varieties – Neelam, Bangalura, Banganapalle, Alphonso and Imam Pasand. Pre-harvest spray of Hexanal formulation retained fruits in the trees for three weeks and three more weeks in storage.

Extending life to six to eight weeks will benefit exporters immensely as they required at least six weeks to take fruits to European and the US market. Existing technologies were sufficient to retain fruits up to four weeks only. Domestic growers too can delay harvest and tap market when in demand.

In a companion Dec. 29, 2015 article (New technologies will enhance income of farmers) for The Hindu, benefits for the Indian agricultural economy were extolled,

Nano technology is an ideal tool to extend the shelf life and delay in ripening mango in trees, but proper bio-safety tests should be done before introducing it to farmers, according to Deputy Director General of ICAR N.K. Krishnakumar.

Inaugurating a workshop on Enhanced Preservation of Fruits using Nanotechnology Project held at the Horticultural College and Research Institute at Periyakulam near here on Monday [Dec. 28, 2015], he said that bio safety test was very important before implementing any nano-technology. Proper adoption of new technologies would certainly enhance the income of farmers, he added.

Demand for organic fruits was very high in foreign countries, he said, adding that Japan and Germany were prepared to buy large quantum of organic pomegranate. Covering fruits in bags would ensure uniform colour and quality, he said.

He appealed to scale down use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers to improve quality and taste. He said dipping mango in water mixed with salt will suffice to control fungus.

Postgraduate and research students should take up a problem faced by farmers and find a solution to it by working in his farm. His thesis could be accepted for offering degree only after getting feedback from that farmer. Such measure would benefit college, students and farmers, Mr. Krishnakumar added.

It’s good to get an update on the project’s progress and, while it’s not clear from the excerpts I have here, they are testing hexanal with on fruit other than mangoes.

Tomatoes and some nano-sized nutrients

While zinc is a metal, it’s also a nutrient vital to plants as a Nov. 5, 2015 news item on ScienceDaily notes,

With the world population expected to reach 9 billion by 2050, engineers and scientists are looking for ways to meet the increasing demand for food without also increasing the strain on natural resources, such as water and energy — an initiative known as the food-water-energy nexus.

Ramesh Raliya, PhD, a postdoctoral researcher, and Pratim Biswas, PhD, the Lucy & Stanley Lopata Professor and chair of the Department of Energy, Environmental & Chemical Engineering, both at the School of Engineering & Applied Science at Washington University in St. Louis, are addressing this issue by using nanoparticles to boost the nutrient content and growth of tomato plants. Taking a clue from their work with solar cells, the team found that by using zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles, the tomato plants better absorbed light and minerals, and the fruit had higher antioxidant content.

A Nov. 5, 2015 Washington University in St. Louis news release by Beth Miller (also on EurekAlert but dated Nov. 6, 2015), which originated the news item, describes the work in more detail,

“When a plant grows, it signals the soil that it needs nutrients,” Biswas says. “The nutrient it needs is not in a form that the plant can take right away, so it secretes enzymes, which react with the soil and trigger bacterial microbes to turn the nutrients into a form that the plant can use. We’re trying to aid this pathway by adding nanoparticles.”

Zinc is an essential nutrient for plants, helps other enzymes function properly and is an ingredient in conventional fertilizer. Titanium is not an essential nutrient for plants, Raliya says, but boosts light absorption by increasing chlorophyll content in the leaves and promotes photosynthesis, properties Biswas’ lab discovered while creating solar cells.

The team used a very fine spray using novel aerosolization techniques to directly deposit the nanoparticles on the leaves of the plants for maximum uptake.

“We found that our aerosol technique resulted in much greater uptake of nutrients by the plant in comparison to application of the nanoparticles to soil,” Raliya says. “A plant can only uptake about 20 percent of the nutrients applied through soil, with the remainder either forming stable complexes with soil constituents or being washed away with water, causing runoff. In both of the latter cases, the nutrients are unavailable to plants.”

Overall, plants treated with the nanoparticles via aerosol routes produced nearly 82 percent (by weight) more fruit than untreated plants. In addition, the tomatoes from treated plant showed an increase in lycopene, an antioxidant linked to reduced risk of cancer, heart disease and age-related eye disorders, of between 80 percent and 113 percent.

Previous studies by other researchers have shown that increasing the use of nanotechnology in agriculture in densely populated countries such as India and China has made an impact on reducing malnutrition and child mortality. These tomatoes will help address malnutrition, Raliya says, because they allow people to get more nutrients from tomatoes than those conventionally grown.

In the study, published online last month in the journal Metallomics, the team found that the nanoparticles in the plants and the tomatoes were well below the USDA limit and considerably lower than what is used in conventional fertilizer. However, they still have to be cautious and select the best concentration of nanoparticles to use for maximum benefit, Biswas says.

Raliya and the rest of the team are now working to develop a new formulation of nanonutrients that includes all 17 elements required by plants.

“In 100 years, there will be more cities and less farmland, but we will need more food,” Raliya says. “At the same time, water will be limited because of climate change. We need an efficient methodology and a controlled environment in which plants can grow.”

Here’s a link to and a citation for the paper,

Mechanistic evaluation of translocation and physiological impact of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles on the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plant by Ramesh Raliya, Remya Nair, Sanmathi Chavalmane, Wei-Ning Wang and Pratim Biswas. Metallomics, 2015, Advance Article DOI: 10.1039/C5MT00168D First published online 08 Oct 2015

I believe this article is behind a paywall.

‘Nano to go’, a practical guide to safe handling of nanomaterials and other innovative materials in the workplace

If you’ve been looking for a practical guide to handling nanomaterials you may find that nanoToGo fills the bill. From an Oct. 23, 2015 posting by Lynn Bergeson for Nanotechnology Now,

In September 2015, “Nano to go!” was published. See http://nanovalid.eu/index.php/nanovalid-publications/306-nanotogo “Nano to go!” is “a practically oriented guidance on safe handling of nanomaterials and other innovative materials at the workplace.” The German Federal Institute for Occupational Health (BAuA) developed it within the NanoValid project.

From the nanoToGo webpage on the NanoValid project website (Note: Links have been removed),

Nano to go! contains a brochure, field studies, presentations and general documents to comprehensively support risk assessment and risk management. …

Brochure →

The brochure Safe handling of nanomaterials and other advanced materials at workplacessupports risk assessment and risk management when working with nanomaterials. It provides safety strategies and protection measures for handling nanomaterials bound in solid matrices, dissolved in liquids, insoluble or insoluble powder form, and for handling nanofibres. Additional recommendations are given for storage and disposal of nanomaterials, for protection from fire and explosion, for training and instruction courses, and for occupational health.

Field Studies→

The field studies comprise practical examples of expert assessment of safety and health at different workplaces. They contain detailed descriptions of several exposure measurements at pilot plants and laboratories. The reports describe methods, sampling strategies and devices, summarise and discuss results, and combine measurements and non-measurement methods.

General →

Useful information, templates and examples, such as operating instructions, a sampling protocol, a dialogue guide and a short introduction to safety management and nanomaterials.

Presentations →

Ready to use presentations for university lecturers, supervisors and instruction courses, complemented with explanatory notes.

The ‘brochure’ is 56 pages; I would have called it a manual.

As for the NanoValid project, there’s this from the project’s homepage,

The EU FP7 [Framework Programme 7] large-scale integrating project NanoValid (contract: 263147) has been launched on the 1st of November 2011, as one of the “flagship” nanosafety projects. The project consists of 24 European partners from 14 different countries and 6 partners from Brazil, Canada, India and the US and will run from 2011 to 2015, with a total budget of more than 13 mio EUR (EC contribution 9.6 mio EUR). Main objective of NanoValid is to develop a set of reliable reference methods and materials for the fabrication, physicochemical (pc) characterization, hazard identification and exposure assessment of engineered nanomaterials (EN), including methods for dispersion control and labelling of ENs. Based on newly established reference methods, current approaches and strategies for risk and life cycle assessment will be improved, modified and further developed, and their feasibility assessed by means of practical case studies.

I was not expecting to see Canada in there.

Nanotechnology-enabled flame retardant coating

This is a pretty remarkable demonstration made more so when you find out the flame retardant is naturally derived and nontoxic. From an Oct. 5, 2015 news item on Nanowerk,

Inspired by a naturally occurring material found in marine mussels, researchers at The University of Texas at Austin have created a new flame retardant to replace commercial additives that are often toxic and can accumulate over time in the environment and living animals, including humans.

An Oct. 5, 2015 University of Texas news release, which originated the news item, describes the situation with regard to standard flame retardants and what makes this new flame retardant technology so compelling,

Flame retardants are added to foams found in mattresses, sofas, car upholstery and many other consumer products. Once incorporated into foam, these chemicals can migrate out of the products over time, releasing toxic substances into the air and environment. Throughout the United States, there is pressure on state legislatures to ban flame retardants, especially those containing brominated compounds (BRFs), a mix of human-made chemicals thought to pose a risk to public health.

A team led by Cockrell School of Engineering associate professor Christopher Ellison found that a synthetic coating of polydopamine — derived from the natural compound dopamine — can be used as a highly effective, water-applied flame retardant for polyurethane foam. Dopamine is a chemical compound found in humans and animals that helps in the transmission of signals in the brain and other vital areas. The researchers believe their dopamine-based nanocoating could be used in lieu of conventional flame retardants.

“Since polydopamine is natural and already present in animals, this question of toxicity immediately goes away,” Ellison said. “We believe polydopamine could cheaply and easily replace the flame retardants found in many of the products that we use every day, making these products safer for both children and adults.”

Using far less polydopamine by weight than typical of conventional flame retardant additives, the UT Austin team found that the polydopamine coating on foams leads to a 67 percent reduction in peak heat release rate, a measure of fire intensity and imminent danger to building occupants or firefighters. The polydopamine flame retardant’s ability to reduce the fire’s intensity is about 20 percent better than existing flame retardants commonly used today.

Researchers have studied the use of synthetic polydopamaine for a number of health-related applications, including cancer drug delivery and implantable biomedical devices. However, the UT Austin team is thought to be one of the first to pursue the use of polydopamine as a flame retardant. To the research team’s surprise, they did not have to change the structure of the polydopamine from its natural form to use it as a flame retardant. The polydopamine was coated onto the interior and exterior surfaces of the polyurethane foam by simply dipping it into a water solution of dopamine for several days.

Ellison said he and his team were drawn to polydopamine because of its ability to adhere to surfaces as demonstrated by marine mussels who use the compound to stick to virtually any surface, including Teflon, the material used in nonstick cookware. Polydopamine also contains a dihydroxy-ring structure linked with an amine group that can be used to scavenge or remove free radicals. Free radicals are produced during the fire cycle as a polymer degrades, and their removal is critical to stopping the fire from continuing to spread. Polydopamine also produces a protective coating called char, which blocks fire’s access to its fuel source — the polymer. The synergistic combination of both these processes makes polydopamine an attractive and powerful flame retardant.

Ellison and his team are now testing to see whether they can shorten the nanocoating treatment process or develop a more convenient application process.

“We believe this alternative to flame retardants can prove very useful to removing potential hazards from products that children and adults use every day,” Ellison said. “We weren’t expecting to find a flame retardant in nature, but it was a serendipitous discovery.”

Here’s a link to and a citation for the paper,

Bioinspired Catecholic Flame Retardant Nanocoating for Flexible Polyurethane Foams by Joon Hee Cho, Vivek Vasagar, Kadhiravan Shanmuganathan, Amanda R. Jones, Sergei Nazarenko, and Christopher J. Ellison. Chem. Mater., 2015, 27 (19), pp 6784–6790 DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.5b03013
Publication Date (Web): September 9, 2015
Copyright © 2015 American Chemical Society

This paper is behind a paywall. It should be noted that researchers from the University of Southern Mississippi and the Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR)-National Chemical Laboratory in Pune, India were also involved in this work.