Tag Archives: shark skin

Killing bacteria on contact with dragonfly-inspired nanocoating

Scientists in Singapore were inspired by dragonflies and cicadas according to a March 28, 2018 news item on Nanowerk (Note: A link has been removed),

Studies have shown that the wings of dragonflies and cicadas prevent bacterial growth due to their natural structure. The surfaces of their wings are covered in nanopillars making them look like a bed of nails. When bacteria come into contact with these surfaces, their cell membranes get ripped apart immediately and they are killed. This inspired researchers from the Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology (IBN) of A*STAR to invent an anti-bacterial nano coating for disinfecting frequently touched surfaces such as door handles, tables and lift buttons.

This technology will prove particularly useful in creating bacteria-free surfaces in places like hospitals and clinics, where sterilization is important to help control the spread of infections. Their new research was recently published in the journal Small (“ZnO Nanopillar Coated Surfaces with Substrate-Dependent Superbactericidal Property”)

Image 1: Zinc oxide nanopillars that looked like a bed of nails can kill a broad range of germs when used as a coating on frequently-touched surfaces. Courtesy: A*STAR

A March 28, 2018 Agency for Science Technology and Research (A*STAR) press release, which originated the news item, describes the work further,

80% of common infections are spread by hands, according to the B.C. [province of Canada] Centre for Disease Control1. Disinfecting commonly touched surfaces helps to reduce the spread of harmful germs by our hands, but would require manual and repeated disinfection because germs grow rapidly. Current disinfectants may also contain chemicals like triclosan which are not recognized as safe and effective 2, and may lead to bacterial resistance and environmental contamination if used extensively.

“There is an urgent need for a better way to disinfect surfaces without causing bacterial resistance or harm to the environment. This will help us to prevent the transmission of infectious diseases from contact with surfaces,” said IBN Executive Director Professor Jackie Y. Ying.

To tackle this problem, a team of researchers led by IBN Group Leader Dr Yugen Zhang created a novel nano coating that can spontaneously kill bacteria upon contact. Inspired by studies on dragonflies and cicadas, the IBN scientists grew nanopilllars of zinc oxide, a compound known for its anti-bacterial and non-toxic properties. The zinc oxide nanopillars can kill a broad range of germs like E. coli and S. aureus that are commonly transmitted from surface contact.

Tests on ceramic, glass, titanium and zinc surfaces showed that the coating effectively killed up to 99.9% of germs found on the surfaces. As the bacteria are killed mechanically rather than chemically, the use of the nano coating would not contribute to environmental pollution. Also, the bacteria will not be able to develop resistance as they are completely destroyed when their cell walls are pierced by the nanopillars upon contact.

Further studies revealed that the nano coating demonstrated the best bacteria killing power when it is applied on zinc surfaces, compared with other surfaces. This is because the zinc oxide nanopillars catalyzed the release of superoxides (or reactive oxygen species), which could even kill nearby free floating bacteria that were not in direct contact with the surface. This super bacteria killing power from the combination of nanopillars and zinc broadens the scope of applications of the coating beyond hard surfaces.

Subsequently, the researchers studied the effect of placing a piece of zinc that had been coated with zinc oxide nanopillars into water containing E. coli. All the bacteria were killed, suggesting that this material could potentially be used for water purification.

Dr Zhang said, “Our nano coating is designed to disinfect surfaces in a novel yet practical way. This study demonstrated that our coating can effectively kill germs on different types of surfaces, and also in water. We were also able to achieve super bacteria killing power when the coating was used on zinc surfaces because of its dual mechanism of action. We hope to use this technology to create bacteria-free surfaces in a safe, inexpensive and effective manner, especially in places where germs tend to accumulate.”

IBN has recently received a grant from the National Research Foundation, Prime Minister’s Office, Singapore, under its Competitive Research Programme to further develop this coating technology in collaboration with Tan Tock Seng Hospital for commercial application over the next 5 years.

1 B.C. Centre for Disease Control

2 U.S. Food & Drug Administration

(I wasn’t expecting to see a reference to my home province [BC Centre for Disease Control].) Back to the usual, here’s a link to and a citation for the paper,

ZnO Nanopillar Coated Surfaces with Substrate‐Dependent Superbactericidal Property by Guangshun Yi, Yuan Yuan, Xiukai Li, Yugen Zhang. Small https://doi.org/10.1002/smll.201703159 First published: 22 February 2018

This paper is behind a paywall.

One final comment, this research reminds me of research into simulating shark skin because that too has bacteria-killing nanostructures. My latest about the sharkskin research is a Sept, 18, 2014 posting.

Sharklet’s sharkskin-like material

It’s one of my favourite technologies but there hasn’t been much talk about Sharklet for the last few years. My Feb. 10, 2011 posting about it had this,

They used sharkskin as an example for making a ‘smarter’ material. Scientists have observed that nanoscale structures on a shark’s skin have antibacterial properties. This is especially important when we have a growing problem with bacteria that are antibiotic resistant. David Pogue’s (the program host) interviewed scientists at Sharklet and highlighted their work producing a plastic with nanostructures similar to those found on sharkskin for use in hospitals, restaurants, etc.  I found this on the Sharklet website (from a rotating graphic on the home page),

The World Health Organization calls antibiotic resistance a leading threat to human health.

Sharkjet provides a non-toxic approach to bacterial control and doesn’t create resistance.

The reason that the material does not create resistance is that it doesn’t kill the bacteria (antibiotics kill most bacteria but cannot kill all of them with the consequence that only the resistant survive and reproduce). Excerpted from Sharklet’s technology page,

While the Sharklet pattern holds great promise to improve the way humans co-exist with microorganisms, the pattern was developed far outside of a laboratory. In fact, Sharklet was discovered via a seemingly unrelated problem: how to keep algae from coating the hulls of submarines and ships. In 2002, Dr. Anthony Brennan, a materials science and engineering professor at the University of Florida, was visiting the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor in Oahu as part of Navy-sponsored research. The U.S. Office of Naval Research solicited Dr. Brennan to find new antifouling strategies to reduce use of toxic antifouling paints and trim costs associated with dry dock and drag.

The most recent news from Sharklet comes in a Sept. 16, 2014 news release on EurekAlert which refines the definition for Sharklet and provides research about the latest research on this material,

Transmission of bacterial infections, including MRSA and MSSA could be curbed by coating hospital surfaces with microscopic bumps that mimic the scaly surface of shark skin, according to research published in the open access journal Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control.

The study modelled how well different materials prevented the spread of human disease bacteria through touching, sneezes or spillages. The micropattern, named Sharklet™, is an arrangement of ridges formulated to resemble shark skin. The study showed that Sharklet harboured 94% less MRSA bacteria than a smooth surface, and fared better than copper, a leading antimicrobial material. The bacteria were less able to attach to Sharklet’s imperceptibly textured surface, suggesting it could reduce the spread of superbugs in hospital settings.

The surfaces in hospitals and healthcare settings are often rife with bacteria and patients are vulnerable to bacterial infection. Scientists are investigating the ability of different materials to prevent the spread of bacteria. Copper alloys are a popular option, as they are toxic to bacterial cells, interfering with their cellular processes and killing them. The Sharklet micropattern works differently – the size and composition of its microscopic features prevent bacteria from attaching to it. It mimics the unique qualities of shark skin, which, unlike other underwater surfaces, inhibits bacteria, because it is covered with a natural micropattern of tooth-like structures, called denticles.

Dr Ethan Mann, a research scientist at Sharklet Technologies, the manufacturer of the micropattern, says: “The Sharklet texture is designed to be manufactured directly into the surfaces of plastic products that surround patients in hospital, including environmental surfaces as well as medical devices. Sharklet does not introduce new materials or coatings – it simply alters the shape and texture of existing materials to create surface properties that are unfavorable for bacterial contamination.”

The researchers from Sharklet Technologies compared how well two types of infection-causing bacteria, methicillin-resistant or susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and MSSA), fared at contaminating three surfaces – the Sharklet micropattern, a copper alloy, and a smooth control surface. They created experimental procedures to mimic common ways bacteria infect surfaces. Sneezing was mimicked by using a paint sprayer to spread the bacterial solution on 10 samples of each surface. To mimic infected patients touching the surfaces, velveteen cloth was put in contact with bacteria for 10s, and then placed on another set of each test surface for 10s. A third set of each surface was immersed in bacterial solution for an hour, then rinsed and dried, to mimic spills.

Surfaces were sampled for remaining contaminations either immediately following exposure to MSSA and MRSA or 90 minutes after being exposed. The Sharklet micropattern reduced transmission of MSSA by 97% compared to the smooth control, while copper was no better than the control. The micropattern also harboured 94% less MRSA bacteria than the control surface, while the copper had 80% less.

Dr Mann says: “Shark skin itself is not an antimicrobial surface, rather it seems highly adapted to resist attachment of living organisms such as algae and barnacles. Shark skin has a specific roughness and certain properties that deter marine organisms from attaching to the skin surface. We have learned much from nature in building this material texture for the future.”

Here’s an illustration the researchers have provided,

Caption: This is an image of the Sharklet micropattern, which mimics the denticles of shark skin. Credit: Mann et al.

Caption: This is an image of the Sharklet micropattern, which mimics the denticles of shark skin.
Credit: Mann et al.

Here’s a link to and a citation for the paper,

Surface micropattern limits bacterial contamination by Ethan E Mann, Dipankar Manna, Michael R Mettetal, Rhea M May, Elisa M Dannemiller, Kenneth K Chung, Anthony B Brennan, and Shravanthi T Reddy. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control 2014, 3:28  doi:10.1186/2047-2994-3-28

This is an open access paper.

Coatings that shake off bacteria and biological photocopying

The American Vacuum Society (AVS) is holding its 58th International Symposium and Exhibition from Oct. 30 – Nov. 4, 2011 in Nashville, Tennessee. Presentations are not focused on vacuuming (hoovering) floors but rather on something called vacuum science and they span from a presentation on bacteria and coatings to another on photocopying DNA to more.

From the Oct. 31, 2011 news item on Nanowerk,

“Sea water is a very aggressive biological system,” says Gabriel Lopez, whose lab at Duke University studies the interface of marine bacterial films with submerged surfaces. While the teeming abundance of ocean life makes coral reefs and tide pools attractive tourist destinations, for ships whose hulls become covered with slime, all this life can, quite literally, be a big drag. On just one class of U.S. Navy destroyer, biological build-up is estimated to cost more than $50 million a year, mostly in extra fuel, according to a 2010 study performed by researchers from the U.S. Naval Academy and Naval Surface Warfare Center in Maryland. Marine biofouling can also disrupt the operation of ocean sensors, heat-exchangers that suck in water to cool mechanical systems, and other underwater equipment.

I think rather than describing sea water as ‘aggressive’  which suggests intent, I’d use ‘active’ as Lopez does later in another context (excerpted from the news item),

Lopez and his group focus on a class of materials called stimuli-responsive surfaces. As the name implies, the materials will alter their physical or chemical properties in response to a stimulus, such as a temperature change. The coatings being tested in Lopez’s lab wrinkle on the micro- or nano-scale, shaking off slimy colonies of marine bacteria in a manner similar to how a horse might twitch its skin to shoo away flies. The researchers also consider how a stimulus might alter the chemical properties of a surface in a way that could decrease a marine organism’s ability to stick.

At the AVS Symposium, held Oct. 30 – Nov. 4 in Nashville, Tenn., Lopez will present results from experiments on two different types of stimuli-responsive surfaces: one that changes its texture in response to temperature and the other in response to an applied voltage. The voltage-responsive surfaces are being developed in collaboration with the laboratory of Xuanhe Zhao, also a Duke researcher, who found that insulating cables can fail if they deform under voltages. “Surprisingly, the same failure mechanism can be made useful in deforming surfaces of coatings and detaching biofouling,” Zhao said.

“The idea of an active surface is inspired by nature,” adds Lopez, who remembers being intrigued by the question of how a sea anemone’s waving tentacles are able to clean themselves. [emphasis mine] Other biological surfaces, such as shark skin, have already been copied by engineers seeking to learn from nature’s own successful anti-fouling systems.

(I did profile some biomimicry work being done with shark skin in my comments on part 4 of the Making Stuff programmes broadcast as part of the Nova series on PBS (US Public Broadcasting Stations) in my Feb. 10, 2011 posting.)

This next presentation is in the area of synthetic biology. From the Oct. 31, 2011 news item (DNA origami from inkjet synthesis produced strands) on Nanowerk,

In the emerging field of synthetic biology, engineers use biological building blocks, such as snippets of DNA, to construct novel technologies. One of the key challenges in the field is finding a way to quickly and economically synthesize the desired DNA strands. Now scientists from Duke University have fabricated a reusable DNA chip that may help address this problem by acting as a template from which multiple batches of DNA building blocks can be photocopied. The researchers have used the device to create strands of DNA which they then folded into unique nanoscale structures.

“We found that we had an “immortal” DNA chip in our hands,” says Ishtiaq Saaem, a biomedical engineering researcher at Duke and member of the team. [emphasis mine] “Essentially, we were able to do the biological copying process to release material off the chip tens of times. [emphasis mine] The process seems to work even using a chip that we made, used, stored in -20C for a while, and brought out and used again.”

After releasing the DNA from the chip, the team “cooked” it together with a piece of long viral DNA. “In the cooking process, the viral DNA is stapled into a desired shape by the smaller chip-derived DNA,” explains Saaem. One of the team’s first examples of DNA origami was a rectangle shape with a triangle attached on one side, which the researchers dubbed a “nano-house.” The structure could be used to spatially orient organic and inorganic materials, serve as a scaffold for drug delivery, or act as a nanoscale ruler, Saaem says.

I’m not very comfortable with the notion of an “immortal DNA chip” but then I have many reservations about synthetic biology. Still, I think it’s important to pay attention and consider the possibility that my fears about synthetic biology might make as much sense as the fears many had about electricity in the 19th century.