Tag Archives: Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST)

Era of ‘optical computers’ approaching fast

More energy and faster, that’s a very short description for the future of computing according this May 2, 2022 news item on Nanowerk which announces research that could help make that happen (Note: A link has been removed),

The demand is explosively increasing for computers that can quickly calculate and process large amounts of information recently, as artificial intelligence, self-driving cars, drones, and metaverse technologies are drawing attention as core industries of the future.

However, electronic semiconductor logic gates, which serve as the brains of computers today, have limited capacities in high-speed data calculation and processing and have disadvantages in that they consume a lot of energy and generate considerable heat.

Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) and Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST) announced that their research teams, led by Dr. Yusin Pak at the Sensor System Research Center (KIST) and Professor Gun Young Jung at the School of Materials Science and Engineering (GIST), have developed an ultra-high-speed, high-efficiency optoelectronic logic gates (OELGs) by using organic-inorganic perovskite photodiodes (Nature Communications, “Perovskite Multifunctional Logic Gates via Bipolar Photoresponse of Single Photodetector”).

A May 2, 2022 (Korea) National Research Council of Science & Technology press release on EurekAlert, which originated the news item, provides more technical detail,

The optoelectronic logic gate has high-speed and high-efficiency characteristics; it uses light as an input signal which demonstrates low energy loss physically and can operate only with light energy without electrical power supply. The research teams implemented a stacked perovskite optoelectronic logic gate. Two layers of perovskite thin films are vertically stacked like a sandwich and proved that the desired binary logic operation is possible by inputting two lights of different wavelengths and intensities.

As the perovskite optoelectronic logic gate can freely change the photocurrent polarity using light, executing more than one logic gate operation result for the same input value is possible. Therefore, compared to the existing logic gate that can only perform one logical operation on one device, the newly developed one can implement all five different basic logic operations such as AND, OR, NAND, NOR, and NOT. It enables the development of optical processors with high spatial efficiency and integration, as one logic gate can function like five logic gates.

Dr. Pak (KIST) said, “Perovskite optoelectronic logic gates that execute multiple logic operations in response to optical input are expected to be used for ultra-small and low-power universal optical sensor platforms in the future.” Prof. Jung (GIST) expected that “The optoelectronic logic gate developed through this research is an outcome of optical computing R&D that realizes five basic logic operations into one device, and will greatly contribute to next-generation optical communication, optical network, and healthcare R&D”.

Here’s a link to and a citation for the paper,

Perovskite multifunctional logic gates via bipolar photoresponse of single photodetector by Woochul Kim, Hyeonghun Kim, Tae Jin Yoo, Jun Young Lee, Ji Young Jo, Byoung Hun Lee, Assa Aravindh Sasikala, Gun Young Jung & Yusin Pak. Nature Communications volume 13, Article number: 720 (2022) DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-28374-w Published 07 February 2022

This paper is open access.

Eco-friendly nanocomposite catalyst and ultrasound to remove pollutants from water

The best part of this story is that they’re using biochar from rice hulls to create the nanocomposite catalyst. A July 19, 2019 news item on ScienceDaily reveals a few details about the research without discussing the rice hulls,

The research team of Dr. Jae-woo Choi and Dr. Kyung-won Jung of the Korea Institute of Science and Technology’s (KIST, president: Byung-gwon Lee) Water Cycle Research Center announced that it has developed a wastewater treatment process that uses a common agricultural byproduct to effectively remove pollutants and environmental hormones, which are known to be endocrine disruptors.

A July 19, 2019 Korea National Research Council of Science & Technology news release on EurekAlert, which originated the news item, provides more detail,

The sewage and wastewater that are inevitably produced at any industrial worksite often contain large quantities of pollutants and environmental hormones (endocrine disruptors). Because environmental hormones do not break down easily, they can have a significant negative effect on not only the environment but also the human body. To prevent this, a means of removing environmental hormones is required.

The performance of the catalyst that is currently being used to process sewage and wastewater drops significantly with time. Because high efficiency is difficult to achieve given the conditions, the biggest disadvantage of the existing process is the high cost involved. Furthermore, the research done thus far has mostly focused on the development of single-substance catalysts and the enhancement of their performance. Little research has been done on the development of eco-friendly nanocomposite catalysts that are capable of removing environmental hormones from sewage and wastewater.

The KIST research team, led by Dr. Jae-woo Choi and Dr. Kyung-won Jung, utilized biochar,** which is eco-friendly and made from agricultural byproducts, to develop a wastewater treatment process that effectively removes pollutants and environmental hormones. The team used rice hulls [emphasis mine] which are discarded during rice harvesting, to create a biochar that is both eco-friendly and economical. The surface of the biochar was coated with nano-sized manganese dioxide to create a nanocomposite. The high efficiency and low cost of the biochar-nanocomposite catalyst is based on the combination of the advantages of the biochar and manganese dioxide.

**Biochar: a term that collectively refers to substances that can be created through the thermal decomposition of diverse types of biomass or wood under oxygen-limited condition

The KIST team used the hydrothermal method, which is a type of mineral synthesis that uses high heat and pressure, when synthesizing the nanocomposite in order to create a catalyst that is highly active, easily replicable, and stable. It was confirmed that giving the catalyst a three-dimensional stratified structure resulted in the high effectiveness of the advanced oxidation process (AOP), due to the large surface area created.

When used under the same conditions in which the existing catalyst can remove only 80 percent of Bisphenol A (BPA), an environmental hormone, the catalyst developed by the KIST team removed over 95 percent in less than one hour. In particular, when combined with ultrasound (20kHz), it was confirmed that all traces of BPA were completely removed in less than 20 minutes. Even after many repeated tests, the BPA removal rate remained consistently at around 93 percent.

Dr. Kyung-won Jung of KIST’s Water Cycle Research Center said, “The catalyst developed through this study makes use of a common agricultural byproduct. Therefore, we expect that additional research on alternative substances will lead to the development of catalysts derived from various types of organic waste biomass.” Dr. Jae-woo Choi, also of KIST’s Water Cycle Research Center, said, “We have high hopes that future studies aimed at achieving process optimization and increasing removal rates will allow for the development an environmental hormone removal system that is both eco-friendly and low-cost.”

Here’s a link to and a citation for the paper,

Ultrasound-assisted heterogeneous Fenton-like process for bisphenol A removal at neutral pH using hierarchically structured manganese dioxide/biochar nanocomposites as catalysts by Kyung-Won Jung, Seon Yong Lee, Young Jae Lee, Jae-Woo Choi. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Volume 57, October 2019, Pages 22-28 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2019.04.039 Available online 29 April 2019

This paper is behind a paywall.

Inspiration from the sea for titanium implants (mussels) and adhesive panels for flexible sensors (octopuses/octopi/octopodes)

I have two sea-inspired news bits both of which concern adhesion.

Mussels and titanium implants

A July 8, 2016 news item on ScienceDaily features some mussel-inspired research from Japan into how to make better titanium implants,

Titanium is used medically in applications such as artificial joints and dental implants. While it is strong and is not harmful to tissues, the metal lacks some of the beneficial biological properties of natural tissues such as bones and natural teeth. Now, based on insights from mussels–which are able to attach themselves very tightly to even metallic surfaces due to special proteins found in their byssal threads–scientists from RIKEN have successfully attached a biologically active molecule to a titanium surface, paving the way for implants that can be more biologically beneficial.

A July 11, 2016 RIKEN press release (also on EurekAlert but dated July 8, 2016), which originated the news item, provides more information,

The work began from earlier discoveries that mussels can attach to smooth surfaces so effectively thanks to a protein, L-DOPA, which is known to be able to bind very strongly to smooth surfaces such as rocks, ceramics, or metals (…). Interestingly, the same protein functions in humans as a precursor to dopamine, and is used as a treatment for Parkinson’s disease.

According to Chen Zhang of the RIKEN Nano Medical Engineering Laboratory, the first author of the paper published in Angewandte Chemie, “We thought it would be interesting to try to use various techniques to attach a biologically active protein—in our case we chose insulin-like growth factor-1, a promoter of cell proliferation—to a titanium surface like those used in implants” (…).

Using a combination of recombinant DNA technology and treatment with tyrosinase, they were able to create a hybrid protein that contained active parts of both the growth factor and L-DOPA. Tests showed that the proteins were able to fold normally, and further experiments in cell cultures demonstrated that the IGF-1 was still functioning normally. Thanks to the incorporation of the L-DOPA, the team was able to confirm that the proteins bound strongly to the titanium surface, and remained attached even when the metal was washed with phosphate-buffered saline, a water-based solution. Zhang says, “This is similar to the powerful properties of mussel adhesive, which can remain fixed to metallic materials even underwater.”

According to Yoshihiro Ito, Team Leader of the Emergent Bioengineering Research Team of the RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science, “We are very excited by this finding, because the modification process is a universal one that could be used with other proteins. It could allow us to prepare new cell-growth enhancing materials, with potential applications in cell culture systems and regenerative medicine. And it is particularly interesting that this is an example of biomimetics, where nature can teach us new ways to do things. The mussel has given us insights that could be used to allow us to live healthier lives.”

The work was done by RIKEN researchers in collaboration with Professor Peibiao Zhang of the Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Professor Yi Wang of the School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jilin University. The work was partially supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science KAKENHI (Grant Number 15H01810 and 22220009), CAS-JSPS joint fund (GJHZ1519), and RIKEN MOST joint project.

Here’s a link to and a citation for the paper,

A Bioorthogonal Approach for the Preparation of a Titanium-Binding Insulin-like Growth-Factor-1 Derivative by using Tyrosinase by Chen Zhang, Hideyuki Miyatake, Yu Wang, Takehiko Inaba, Yi Wang, Peibiao Zhang, and Prof. Yoshihiro Ito. Angewandte Chemie International Edition DOI: 10.1002/anie.201603155 Version of Record online: 6 JUL 2016

© 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

This paper is behind a paywall.

Octopuses/octopi/octopodes and adhesive panels

Before launching into the science part of this news bit, here’s some grammar (from the Octopus Wikipedia entry; Note: Links have been removed),

The standard pluralized form of “octopus” in the English language is “octopuses” /ˈɒktəpʊsɪz/,[10] although the Ancient Greek plural “octopodes” /ɒkˈtɒpədiːz/, has also been used historically.[9] The alternative plural “octopi” — which misguidedly assumes it is a Latin “-us”-word — is considered grammatically incorrect.[11][12][13][14] It is nevertheless used enough to make it notable, and was formally acknowledged by the descriptivist Merriam-Webster 11th Collegiate Dictionary and Webster’s New World College Dictionary. The Oxford English Dictionary (2008 Draft Revision)[15] lists “octopuses”, “octopi”, and “octopodes”, in that order, labelling “octopodes” as rare and noting that “octopi” derives from the apprehension that octōpus comes from Latin.[16] In contrast, New Oxford American Dictionary (3rd Edition 2010) lists “octopuses” as the only acceptable pluralization, with a usage note indicating “octopodes” as being still occasionally used but “octopi” as being incorrect.[17]

Now the news. A July 12, 2016 news item on Nanowerk highlights some research into adhesives and octopuses,

With increased study of bio-adhesives, a significant effort has been made in search for novel adhesives that will combine reversibility, repeated usage, stronger bonds and faster bonding time, non-toxic, and more importantly be effective in wet and other extreme conditions.

A team of Korean scientists-made up of scientists from Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) and UNIST has recently found a way to make building flexible pressure sensors easier–by mimicking the suction cups on octopus’s tentacles.

A July 5, 2016 UNIST (Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology) press release, which originated the news item, provides more information,

According to the research team, “Although flexible pressure sensors might give future prosthetics and robots a better sense of touch, building them requires a lot of laborious transferring of nano- and microribbons of inorganic semiconductor materials onto polymer sheets.”

In search of an easier way to process this transfer printing, Prof. Hyunhyub Ko (School of Energy and Chemical Engineering, UNIST) and his colleagues turned to the octopus suction cups for inspiration.

An octopus uses its tentacles to move to a new location and uses suction cups underneath each tentacle to grab onto something. Each suction cup contains a cavity whose pressure is controlled by surrounding muscles. These can be made thinner or thicker on demand, increasing or decreasing air pressure inside the cup, allowing for sucking and releasing as desired.

By mimicking muscle actuation to control cavity-pressure-induced adhesion of octopus suckers, Prof. Ko and his team engineered octopus-inspired smart adhesive pads. They used the rubbery material polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to create an array of microscale suckers, which included pores that are coated with a thermally responsive polymer to create sucker-like walls.

The team discovered that the best way to replicate organic nature of muscle contractions would be through applied heat. Indeed, at room temperature, the walls of each pit sit in an ‘open’ state, but when the mat is heated to 32°C, the walls contract, creating suction, therby allowing the entire mate to adhere to a material (mimicking the suction function of an octopus). The adhesive strength also spiked from .32 kilopascals to 94 kilopascals at high temperature.

The team reports that the mat worked as envisioned—they made some indium gallium arsenide transistors that sat on a flexible substrate and also used it to move some nanomaterials to a different type of flexible material.

Prof. Ko and his team expect that their smart adhesive pads can be used as the substrate for wearable health sensors, such as Band-Aids or sensors that stick to the skin at normal body temperatures but fall off when rinsed under cold water.

Here’s a link to and a citation for the paper,

Octopus-Inspired Smart Adhesive Pads for Transfer Printing of Semiconducting Nanomembranes by Hochan Lee, Doo-Seung Um, Youngsu Lee, Seongdong Lim, Hyung-jun Kim,  and Hyunhyub Ko. Advanced Materials DOI: 10.1002/adma.201601407 Version of Record online: 20 JUN 2016

© 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

This paper is behind a paywall.

Removing poison from cigarette smoke

Here’s what the air/smoke cleaner looks like,

Caption: This is a picture of a prototype of the air cleaning equipment for cigarette smoke installed in an actual smoking room. Credit: ©KIST

Caption: This is a picture of a prototype of the air cleaning equipment for cigarette smoke installed in an actual smoking room.
Credit: ©KIST

A July 8, 3025 ScienceDaily news item provides more details about the air cleaner,

The research team led by Dr. Jongsoo Jurng and Dr. Gwi-Nam at KIST stated that, “In cooperation with KT&G [Korea Tobacco & Ginseng Corporation], KIST [Korea Insitute of Science and Technology) has developed a nano-catalyst filter coated with a manganese oxide-based nano-catalyst, which can be used in a smoking room to reduce and purify major harmful substances of cigarette smoke. the KIST-developed catalyst removes 100% of the particle substances of cigarette smoke, such as nicotine and tar, converting those into water vapor and carbon dioxide. According to the research team, the air cleaning equipment based on the newly-developed catalyst can purify over 80% of the cigarette smoke within 30 minutes and 100% of it within 1 hour in a 30 square meter smoking room, where 10 people are simultaneously smoking

A July 8, 2015 KIST press release (also on EurekAlert), which originated the news item, describes how most air cleaners work to remove smoke and how this new technology differs,

Activated charcoal-based filters have been mostly used in a smoking room to remove gaseous materials in cigarette smoke. However, those filters are not effective in removing gaseous materials such as acetaldehyde, their absorbtion performance decreases fast in a closed facility such as a smoking room, and they need to be replaced at least every other week, which is rather inconvenient.

The research team has developed a nano-catalyst filter by evenly coating a manganese oxide-based (Mn/TiO2)) nano-catalyst powder onto a ceramic-based filter media. The nano-catalyst filter uses a technology that decomposes elements of cigarette smoke using oxygen radical, which is generated by decomposing ozone in the air on the surface of the manganese-oxide-based nano-catalyst filter. An evaluation test with total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), such as acetaldehyde, nicotine and tar, which account for the largest volume of gaseous materials in cigarette smoke, is conducted to evaluate the performance of the newly-developed catalyst. The results show that the new catalyst decomposes over 98% of the aforementioned harmful substances (refer to Fig. 3).

For the performance evaluation test, the research team made an air cleaning equipment prototype using the nano-catalyst filter. The equipment was installed in an actual smoking room in the size of 30 square meters (with processing capacity of 4 CMM [cubic metres per minute]). About 80% of cigarette smoke elements were processed and decomposed to water vapor and carbon dioxide, within 30 minutes, and 100% of them within 1 hour. The test condition was designed based on the processing capacity which could circulate the air inside the entire 30 square meter smoking room once every 15 minutes.

The research team expected that it would take a year or so to commercialize this technology as the nano-catalyst and the filter coating technologies had been developed already.

The lead researcher Dr. Jurng mentioned that “this research holds a significance since the new air cleaning equipment based on a simple catalyst successfully processes and removes gaseous materials in cigarette smoke, which are not easily removed with the existing air cleaning technologies. If the new equipment can be simplified and is economically feasible, it will be an important tool for keeping smoking room pleasant and clean. Also, from the convergence perspective, the new nanometer catalyst filter can be integrated with other air cleaning products such as air purifiers and air conditioners.”

Research overview

Ozone (O3) decomposition method using a catalyst can be utilized as a permanent decomposition technology. When O3 interacts with a metal oxide (Mn/TiO2), O3 is decomposed by the following reactivity formula on the surface of manganese (See Figure 1), generating reactive oxygen species, i.e., oxygen radical. The right side of Figure 1 shows the oxidation process of acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), a substance that accounts for the biggest portion of gaseous materials in cigarette smoke. Acetaldehyde is oxidized and turns into innocuous CO2 and H2O by reactive oxygen species generated in the O3 decomposition process. Other VOCs go through similar oxidation reaction.

The performance of the newly developed catalyst (Mn/TiO2) was evaluated using testing devices at the research lab. The decomposition performance was 98% at maximum in the range from low concentration (10ppm) to high concentration (200ppm). Ozone, which was used for processing reaction, was not discharged or detected after the decomposition reaction as it was completely decomposed by the catalyst.

The air cleaning equipment based on the present technology can be used to clean up cigarette smoke in smoking rooms, etc., and can be utilized in various products such as air conditioners and air purifiers. Also, the technology has great potential and values as it can be converged with other technologies.


Glossary of terms

1. Catalytic oxidation and oxygen radical

Catalytic oxidation is known to have high efficiency to oxidize and convert organic substances into innocuous final oxides such as CO2 and H2O. Particularly, with a manganese (Mn)-based catalyst, ozone is decomposed to produce oxygen radical as a reaction intermediate. The oxygen radical is a chemically reactive molecule, which includes oxygen atoms. It has high oxidizing power with high reactivity, and is reported to be effective to process pollutants in the air. Oxygen radicals that fail to react with pollutants are joined together after reaction and are converted to innocuous oxygen (O2) before being discharged into the surrounding.

2. Oxygen radical

Oxygen radical is an oxygen atom in the atomic state prior to being combined into a molecule.

3. Total volatile organic compounds (TVOC)

Total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) is a comprehensive term referring to liquid or gas phase organic compounds that are vaporized into the air at the room temperature. TVOC is known as a carcinogen that can cause disability in the nervous system from skin contact or from inhalation through respiratory organs.

For anyone interested in the diagrams/figures mentioned in the press release, please click the link, July 8, 2015 KIST press release.

Final comment: I love the fact that some of the Korean institutions are including glossaries with their press releases. Thank you!