Scientists at Chalmers University of Technology (Sweden) are able to produce a rainbow of colours in a new electronic paper according to an Oct. 14, 2016 news item on Nanowerk,
Less than a micrometre thin, bendable and giving all the colours that a regular LED display does, it still needs ten times less energy than a Kindle tablet. Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology have developed the basis for a new electronic “paper.”
When Chalmers researcher Andreas Dahlin and his PhD student Kunli Xiong were working on placing conductive polymers on nanostructures, they discovered that the combination would be perfectly suited to creating electronic displays as thin as paper. A year later the results were ready for publication. A material that is less than a micrometre thin, flexible and giving all the colours that a standard LED display does.
An Oct. 14, 2016 Chalmers University of Technology press release (also on EurekAlert) by Mats Tiborn, which originated the news item, expands on the theme,
“The ’paper’ is similar to the Kindle tablet. It isn’t lit up like a standard display, but rather reflects the external light which illuminates it. Therefore it works very well where there is bright light, such as out in the sun, in contrast to standard LED displays that work best in darkness. At the same time it needs only a tenth of the energy that a Kindle tablet uses, which itself uses much less energy than a tablet LED display”, says Andreas Dahlin.
It all depends on the polymers’ ability to control how light is absorbed and reflected. The polymers that cover the whole surface lead the electric signals throughout the full display and create images in high resolution. The material is not yet ready for application, but the basis is there. The team has tested and built a few pixels. These use the same red, green and blue (RGB) colours that together can create all the colours in standard LED displays. The results so far have been positive, what remains now is to build pixels that cover an area as large as a display.
“We are working at a fundamental level but even so, the step to manufacturing a product out of it shouldn’t be too far away. What we need now are engineers”, says Andreas Dahlin.
One obstacle today is that there is gold and silver in the display.
“The gold surface is 20 nanometres thick so there is not that much gold in it. But at present there is a lot of gold wasted in manufacturing it. Either we reduce the waste or we find another way to reduce the production cost”, says Andreas Dahlin.
Here’s a link to and a citation for the paper,
Plasmonic Metasurfaces with Conjugated Polymers for Flexible Electronic Paper in Color by Kunli Xiong, Gustav Emilsson, Ali Maziz, Xinxin Yang, Lei Shao, Edwin W. H. Jager, and Andreas B. Dahlin. Advanced Materials DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603358 Version of Record online: 27 SEP 2016
© 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
This paper is behind a paywall.
Finally, Dexter Johnson in an Oct. 18, 2016 posting on his Nanoclast blog (on the IEEE [Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers] website) offers some broader insight into this development (Note: Links have been removed),
Plasmonic nanostructures leverage the oscillations in the density of electrons that are generated when photons hit a metal surface. Researchers have used these structures for applications including increasing the light absorption of solar cells and creating colors without the need for dyes. As a demonstration of how effective these nanostructures are as a replacement for color dyes, a the technology has been used to produce a miniature copy of the Mona Lisa in a space smaller than the footprint taken up by a single pixel on an iPhone Retina display.