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Leiden, European City of Science 2022, hosts EuroScience Open Forum (ESOF) 2022

The 2022 EuroScience Open Forum (ESOF) runs from July 13 – 16, 2022 but the 2022 European City of Science programme runs for the entire year and a July 15, 2022 University of Leiden press release (received via email) announces a special anniversary date being celebrated by Europe’s current City of Science [Leiden, Netherlands]*,

The smallest statue in the world: Leiden physicists and sculptor build a
nano-Rembrandt

Researchers from Leiden University together with sculptor Jeroen Spijker
created a 3D-printed statue of Rembrandt van Rijn of 28 micrometers tall
– that’s a third of the thickness of a hair. The sculpture, that
isn’t visible to the naked eye, is on display at Museum De Lakenhal in
Leiden. Leiden is the birth town of the famous painter, and on his
birthday today, everyone can come and ‘see’ the statue for free.

To celebrate Leiden European City of Science 2022, Jeroen Spijker worked
with physicists Daniela Kraft and Rachel Doherty from Leiden University
on a micro-statue of Rembrandt made from polymer with a layer of
platinum. At just 28 micrometres tall, the statue, which was made with a
3D printer, is around a third of the thickness of a human hair. This
makes it the smallest work of art in the world, says Jeroen Spijker.

3D printed as small as possible
The work is based on a bronze sculpture of Rembrandt that Spijker had
previously made. This was scanned and printed as small as possible with
a 3D printer. This isn’t Leiden University’s first miniature work.

In 2020 Kraft and Doherty’s research group used the same 3D printer to
make the smallest boat in the world, which could even sail. At 30
micrometres, this was slightly larger than Rembrandt.

Discover the limits of scientific devices
Not only are such tiny creations fun challenges but they also help
scientific research. Kraft and Doherty are studying microswimmers:
microscopic particles that can move in a fluid environment. They print
these microswimmers themselves with a very accurate 3D printer. ‘The
Rembrandt project is helping us discover the limits of our devices,’
says Doherty. ‘How small can we print something?’

On display next to Rembrandt’s paintings
Visitors will see for themselves how this is invisible to the naked eye.
The statue will be in the same room as paintings by Rembrandt. There is
also a short film about the process. Jeroen Spijker: ‘I wanted to
create a statue that I could still accept as a work of art with my own
signature. Any smaller and there would have been too many
distortions.’

About Leiden2022 European City of Science
The nano-statue of Rembrandt was created as a project where art meets
science, one aspect of Leiden2022 European City of Science. The statue
will be on display at Museum De Lakenhal until 31 July.

Leiden is European City of Science in 2022: for a year Leiden is the
capital of European science. Leiden University is a proud partner of
Leiden2022. For an entire year Leiden2022 will be offering a programme
for anyone with an open and curious mind, a programme packed with
science, knowledge, art and expertise.

Here’s the statue,

A special photo of the Rembrandt, which cannot be seen with the naked eye. Courtesy: University of Leident

You can find more about Leiden 2022 European City of Science here. While it’s late for the 2022 EuroScience Open Forum, there’s a preview of the upcoming 2024 European City of Science to be held in Katowice, Poland, which will likely be the site of the 2024 EuroScience Open Forum (ESOF) as well.

*[Leiden, Netherlands] added July 15, 2022 at 1325 hours PT.

Lightweight nanomaterial for firefighters’ safety suits

This piece of research on firefighters’ safety suits comes from Australia’s Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). A February 3, 2022 article by Judy Skatssoon for governmentnews.com.au describes the work, (Note: Despite the date of the article, the research is from 2021)

Researchers at ANSTO are developing a new highly protective nano-material they believe will produce light-weight safety suits that are perfect for Australian firefighters.

The technology involves the use of super-thin nanosheets made from a new fire and heat-resistant non-organic compound, thermo-hydraulics specialist Professor Guan Heng Yeoh says.

The compound is created from titanium carbide and produces a lightweight coating which can be used in place of traditional fire protection measures. 

A compound extracted from prawn shells, chitosan, is used to bind the nanomaterial together.

I found more details about the work in a January 25, 2022 ANSTO press release, Note: Links have been removed,

Scientists from UNSW [University of New South Wales] and ANSTO have characterised the structure of advanced materials, that could be used as a lightweight fire-retardant filler.

Fire retardant materials can self-extinguish if they ignite. 

A team under Professor Guan Heng Yeoh, Director of the ARC Training Centre for Fire Retardant Materials and Safety Technologies at UNSW and Thermal-Hydraulic Specialist at ANSTO, are working to commercialise advanced products for bushfire fighting, building protection and other applications.    

They investigated a family of two-dimensional transition metal carbides, carbonites and nitrides, known as MXenes.

In research published in Composites Part C, they reported the molecular structure of MXene, using neutron scattering and other advanced techniques.

Because the stability, properties, and various applications of MXene rely heavily on its atomic and molecular structure,  Prof Yeoh and associates conducted a detailed structural and surface characterisation of MXene.

Knowledge from this research provided good insight on how structure affects electrical, thermoelectric, magnetic and other properties of Mxene.

Experiments at ANSTO’s Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering on the Bilby small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) instrument were undertaken to characterise the two-dimensional structure of nanosheets—revealing the thickness of the material and the gaps between layers.

Theoretical modelling was used to extrapolate key information from the SANS data regarding the structural architecture of the titanium carbide nanosheets and investigate the influence of temperature on the structure.

Measurements revealed that MXene that is suspended in a colloidal solution consists of nanosheets of ultrathin multilayers with clear sharp edges.

The material comprises nanolayers, which overlap each other and form clusters of micro-sized units that endow a level of protection.

The nanolayers can be added on top of organic fire-retardant polymers. The total thickness of MXene was found to be 3 nm.

The information was in alignment with observations made using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.

Senior Instrument scientist Dr Jitendra Mata said, “Using SANS is like looking through a keyhole, the keyhole gives you a size indication from 1 nanometre to 500nm.  It may feel like a small size, but it’s actually not – many physical phenomena and the chemical structure occur within that size range.

“There are not many techniques in the world that gives you information about the structure and surface that accurately in a suspension and in films. Also, neutrons are ideal for many in-situ studies.”

Protective suits made with traditional retardant use as much as 30 to 40 per cent carbon compounds to achieve fire-retardant properties, which makes them heavy.

“Because we can use very low concentrations of the two-dimensional material, it comprises only about 1- 5 per cent of the total weight of the final material,” explained Prof Yeoh.

“And because it can be applied as a post-treatment, it doesn’t complicate the manufacturing process.”

When heat comes from above the surface of the material, it is conducted and moved along the nanosheets dispersing it. The nanosheets also act as a heat shield.

“At this point, it takes a lot of time to etch out the aluminium, but there are groups working on upscaling the MXene production process,” said Prof Yeoh.

“We also need to look at the performance and characteristics of the material at higher temperatures up to 800°C,” he added.

At the macro level, early tests have found the material to be an effective fire retardant.

A large team of researchers from the UNSW and ANSTO contributed to the research including first authors, Anthony Chun Yin Yuen and Timothy Bo Yuan Chen and ANSTO instrument scientist, Dr Andrew Whitten.

The versatile material could also potentially be used in energy storage devices.

Here’s a link to and a citation for the paper,

Study of structure morphology and layer thickness of Ti3C2 MXene with Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) by Anthony Chun Yin Yuen, Timothy Bo Yuan Chen, Bo Lin, Wei Yang, Imrana I.Kabir, Ivan Miguel De Cachinho Cordeiro, Andrew E.Whitten, Jitendra Mata, Bin Yu, Hong-Dian Lu. Guan Heng Yeoh. Composites Part C: Open Access Volume 5, July 2021, 100155 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcomc.2021.100155

This paper is open access.

UNESCO’s first global recommendations on the ethics of artificial intelligence (AI) announced

This makes a nice accompaniment to my commentary (December 3, 2021 posting) on the Nature of Things programme (telecast by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation), The Machine That Feels.

Here’s UNESCO’s (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) November 25, 2021 press release making the announcement (also received via email),

UNESCO member states adopt the first ever global agreement [recommendation] on the Ethics of Artificial Intelligence

Paris, 25 Nov [2021] – Audrey Azoulay, Director-General of UNESCO presented
Thursday the first ever global standard on the ethics of artificial
intelligence adopted by the member states of UNESCO at the General
Conference.

This historical text defines the common values and principles which will
guide the construction of the necessary legal infrastructure to ensure
the healthy development of AI.

AI is pervasive, and enables many of our daily routines – booking
flights, steering driverless cars, and personalising our morning news
feeds. AI also supports the decision-making of governments and the
private sector.

AI technologies are delivering remarkable results in highly specialized
fields such as cancer screening and building inclusive environments for
people with disabilities. They also help combat global problems like
climate change and world hunger, and help reduce poverty by optimizing
economic aid.

But the technology is also bringing new unprecedented challenges. We see
increased gender and ethnic bias, significant threats to privacy,
dignity and agency, dangers of mass surveillance, and increased use of
unreliable AI technologies in law enforcement, to name a few. Until now,
there were no universal standards to provide an answer to these issues.

In 2018, Audrey Azoulay, Director-General of UNESCO, launched an
ambitious project: to give the world an ethical framework for the use of
artificial intelligence. Three years later, thanks to the mobilization
of hundreds of experts from around the world and intense international
negotiations, the 193 UNESCO’s member states have just officially
adopted this ethical framework.

“The world needs rules for artificial intelligence to benefit
humanity. The Recommendation on the ethics of AI is a major answer. It
sets the first global normative framework while giving States the
responsibility to apply it at their level. UNESCO will support its 193
Member States in its implementation and ask them to report regularly on
their progress and practices”, said Audrey Azoulay, UNESCO Director-General.

The content of the recommendation

The Recommendation [emphasis mine] aims to realize the advantages AI brings to society and reduce the risks it entails. It ensures that digital transformations
promote human rights and contribute to the achievement of the
Sustainable Development Goals, addressing issues around transparency,
accountability and privacy, with action-oriented policy chapters on data
governance, education, culture, labour, healthcare and the economy.

*Protecting data

The Recommendation calls for action beyond what tech firms and
governments are doing to guarantee individuals more protection by
ensuring transparency, agency and control over their personal data. It
states that individuals should all be able to access or even erase
records of their personal data. It also includes actions to improve data
protection and an individual’s knowledge of, and right to control,
their own data. It also increases the ability of regulatory bodies
around the world to enforce this.

*Banning social scoring and mass surveillance

The Recommendation explicitly bans the use of AI systems for social
scoring and mass surveillance. These types of technologies are very
invasive, they infringe on human rights and fundamental freedoms, and
they are used in a broad way. The Recommendation stresses that when
developing regulatory frameworks, Member States should consider that
ultimate responsibility and accountability must always lie with humans
and that AI technologies should not be given legal personality
themselves.

*Helping to monitor and evalute

The Recommendation also sets the ground for tools that will assist in
its implementation. Ethical Impact Assessment is intended to help
countries and companies developing and deploying AI systems to assess
the impact of those systems on individuals, on society and on the
environment. Readiness Assessment Methodology helps Member States to
assess how ready they are in terms of legal and technical
infrastructure. This tool will assist in enhancing the institutional
capacity of countries and recommend appropriate measures to be taken in
order to ensure that ethics are implemented in practice. In addition,
the Recommendation encourages Member States to consider adding the role
of an independent AI Ethics Officer or some other mechanism to oversee
auditing and continuous monitoring efforts.

*Protecting the environment

The Recommendation emphasises that AI actors should favour data, energy
and resource-efficient AI methods that will help ensure that AI becomes
a more prominent tool in the fight against climate change and on
tackling environmental issues. The Recommendation asks governments to
assess the direct and indirect environmental impact throughout the AI
system life cycle. This includes its carbon footprint, energy
consumption and the environmental impact of raw material extraction for
supporting the manufacturing of AI technologies. It also aims at
reducing the environmental impact of AI systems and data
infrastructures. It incentivizes governments to invest in green tech,
and if there are disproportionate negative impact of AI systems on the
environment, the Recommendation instruct that they should not be used.

Decisions impacting millions of people should be fair, transparent and contestable. These new technologies must help us address the major challenges in our world today, such as increased inequalities and the environmental crisis, and not deepening them.” said Gabriela Ramos, UNESCO’s Assistant Director General for Social and Human Sciences.

Emerging technologies such as AI have proven their immense capacity to
deliver for good. However, its negative impacts that are exacerbating an
already divided and unequal world, should be controlled. AI developments
should abide by the rule of law, avoiding harm, and ensuring that when
harm happens, accountability and redressal mechanisms are at hand for
those affected.

If I read this properly (and it took me a little while), this is an agreement on the nature of the recommendations themselves and not an agreement to uphold them.

You can find more background information about the process for developing the framework outlined in the press release on the Recommendation on the ethics of artificial intelligence webpage. I was curious as to the composition of the Adhoc Expert Group (AHEG) for the Recommendation; they had varied representation from every continent. (FYI, The US and Mexico represented North America.)

Nobel Laureates write science articles for children

Caption: Frontiers for Young Minds Nobel Collection. Credit: Frontiers Media

A September 7, 2021 Frontiers news release (also on EurekAlert) describes the company’s latest initiative to engage children in science (Note: I have a bit more about one of the Nobel Laureates, Dan [Daniel] Schechtman at the end of this posting),

Young people everywhere now have access to a free collection of scientific articles written by winners of science’s most coveted honor, the Nobel Prize. The Nobel Collection, published by Frontiers, aims to improve young people’s access to learning material about science’s role in addressing today’s global challenges. The collection will connect young minds with some of today’s most distinguished scientists through engaging learning material steeped in some of the most groundbreaking research from over the last twenty years.

Written for young people aged eight to 15, the collection has been published in the journal Frontiers for Young Minds. With the help of a science mentor, each article in the Nobel Collection has been reviewed by kids themselves to ensure it is understandable, fun, and engaging before publication. By sparking an interest in science from a young age, the Nobel Collection aims to improve young people’s scientific worldview. Its objective is to equip them with a scientific mindset and appreciation of the central role of science in finding solutions to today’s growing catalogue of global challenges.

A keen 13-year-old reviewer from Switzerland shared his experience, “I’m very interested in science and it is fascinating to review papers from the real scientists who know so much about their specialized fields! Many of the papers explain dangerous illnesses to children, and I think such information is so important!”

May-Britt Moser, awarded The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2014, said, “I’m honored to contribute to the journal Frontiers for Young Minds. Children are born curious, with passion for questions and with light in their eyes. As a scientist, I feel privileged to be able to ask questions that I think are important. I hope the papers in this journal may help nurture and reinforce children’s passion and curiosity for science – what a gift to humanity that would be!”

Commenting on the Collection, Aaron Ciechanover who was awarded The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2004, said, “Prizes and recognition are not targets that one should aim for. Breakthrough achievements that expand our knowledge of the world and benefit mankind are. Reading about science was my hobby as a kid and, doubtless, the seed of my curiosity into scientific discovery.”

Currently, the Nobel Collection comprises of contributions including:

How do we find our way? Grid cells in the brain, written by May-Britt Moser, awarded The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2014.

Computer Simulations in Service of Biology, written by Michael Levitt, awarded The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2013.

Quasi-Crystal, Not Quasi-Scientist, written by Dan Shechtman, awarded The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2011.

The Transcription of Life: from DNA to RNA, written by Roger D. Kornberg, awarded The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2006.

Targeted Degradation of Proteins – the Ubiquitin System, written by Aaron Ciechanover, The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2004.

The Nobel Collection’s co-editor Idan Segev, professor of computational neuroscience at the Hebrew University, said: “What we want to achieve with this collection, beyond improving kids’ understanding of the scientific process and the particular Nobel recognized breakthroughs, is to acquaint kids with scientific role models – someone for young people to look up to. The beauty of these articles is that the Nobel Laureates share their life experience with kids, their failures and passions, and provide personal advice for the young minds.

“The kids that we worked with to review the articles were amazed by what they were reading and left the classes with a real sense of admiration for the humanistic as well as the scientific facet of Nobel prize winners. It is an incredible learning resource that can be accessed by anyone with an internet connection worldwide, which in context of the disruption created by the COVID-19 pandemic makes it particularly important.”  

UN Sustainable Development Goals – Quality Education

The initiative is also part of Frontiers’ commitment to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals [SDGs], particularly Goal 4 – Quality Education. Disruption to access to quality education has been exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic, potentially jeopardizing some of the hard-won gains in recent years.

Frontiers, who funds the Frontiers for Young Minds journal as part of its philanthropy program, intends to work with at least five more Nobel Laureates later this year to grow the resource. All the articles are free to read, download, and share. Plans are also in place to translate the Nobel Collection into a portfolio of languages so even more young people from around the world can make use of it.

Dr. Fred Fenter, chief executive editor of Frontiers, said: “From fighting climate change to disease to poverty, science saves lives. What better role models to inspire future generations of scientists than Nobel Prize winners themselves. Our hope is the Nobel Collection will act as a catalyst, both motivating young people and improving their appreciation of the central role science will play in creating a sustainable future for people and planet.”

The Frontiers for Young Minds initiative

The Frontiers for Young Minds journal launched in 2013. Since then, Frontiers has engaged with around 3,500 young reviewers, each of whom has been guided by one of around 600 science mentors. To date, the journal has received more than ten million views and downloads of its 750 articles, which include English, Hebrew, and Arabic versions. The Frontiers for Young Minds editorial board currently consists of scientists and researchers from more than 64 countries.

Topics included in the journal range from astronomy and space science to biodiversity, neuroscience, pollution prevention, and mental health. Although written and edited for a younger audience, all the research published in Frontiers for Young Minds is based on solid evidence-based scientific research. 

I found the Schechtman story in my December 24, 2013 posting,

I suggested earlier that this achievement has a fabulous quality and the Daniel Schechtman backstory is the reason. The winner of the 2011 Nobel Prize for Chemistry, Schechtman was reviled for years within his scientific community as Ian Sample notes in his Oct. 5, 2011 article on the announcement of Schechtman’s Nobel win written for the Guardian newspaper (Note: A link has been removed),

“A scientist whose work was so controversial he was ridiculed and asked to leave his research group has won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

Daniel Shechtman, 70, a researcher at Technion-Israel Institute of Technology in Haifa, received the award for discovering seemingly impossible crystal structures in frozen gobbets of metal that resembled the beautiful patterns seen in Islamic mosaics.

Images of the metals showed their atoms were arranged in a way that broke well-establised rules of how crystals formed, a finding that fundamentally altered how chemists view solid matter.

On the morning of 8 April 1982, Shechtman saw something quite different while gazing at electron microscope images of a rapidly cooled metal alloy. The atoms were packed in a pattern that could not be repeated. Shechtman said to himself in Hebrew, “Eyn chaya kazo,” which means “There can be no such creature.”

The bizarre structures are now known as “quasicrystals” and have been seen in a wide variety of materials. Their uneven structure means they do not have obvious cleavage planes, making them particularly hard.

In an interview this year with the Israeli newspaper, Haaretz, Shechtman said: “People just laughed at me.” He recalled how Linus Pauling, a colossus of science and a double Nobel laureate, mounted a frightening “crusade” against him. After telling Shechtman to go back and read a crystallography textbook, the head of his research group asked him to leave for “bringing disgrace” on the team. “I felt rejected,” Shachtman said.”

It takes a lot to persevere when most, if not all, of your colleagues are mocking and rejecting your work so bravo to Schechtman! And,bravo to the Japan-UK project researchers who have persevered to help solve at least part of a complex problem requiring that our basic notions of matter be rethought.

I encourage you to read Sample’s article in its entirety as it is well written and I’ve excerpted only bits of the story as it relates to a point I’m making in this post, i.e., perseverance in the face of extreme resistance.

Shechtman’s quasi-crystal story for Frontiers provides clear explanations and a little inspiration while not flinching away from the difficulties posed when shaking up established theories.

BTW, I like reading material written for children as there are often useful explanations that aren’t included in material intended for adults.

Black History Month (February 2022): a Canadian conference and a US magazine cover story

I’ve got two items that feature science in Black History Month 2022.

BE-STEMM

The Canadian Black Scientists Network (CBSN) is holding its first annual Black Excellence Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics, Medicine and Health (BE-STEMM) conference Jan. 30-Feb. 2, 2022.

The conference is featured on CBSN’s homepage and it’s where you’ll find a welcome video, which may be livestreaming an event, “Only select public sessions can be viewed here, for full access to all sessions and speakers, please register and join the conference.” Join Conference Register Now!

I did find a bit more information about the conference programme in a January 24, 2022 news item on a University of Saskatchewan (USask) Health Sciences news page (Note: Links have been removed),

The event, sponsored by the USask Office of the President and other major Canadian universities, aims to remove barriers to attracting and retaining Black Canadians in STEMM fields.

“The CBSN was created with the following vision: To elevate, make visible, celebrate and connect Black Canadians in STEMM across sectors. The CBSN is open every Canadian in the STEMM field who identifies as Black,” said University of Saskatchewan (USask) College of Medicine professor and researcher Dr. Erique Lukong (PhD), who serves as vice-president of the CBSN.

The event dates coincide with the beginning of Black History Month, which honours the legacy of Black Canadians and their communities. With the federal government announcing this year’s theme, The Future Is Now, the CBSN BE-STEMM conference provides the perfect opportunity to engage with the discoveries and innovations taking place in Black Canadian research communities.

Lukong is a leader within the CBSN and is a current USask College of Medicine breast cancer researcher who will be presenting at the BE-STEMM conference. His work focuses on analyzing the cellular, physiological and clinical roles of enzymes BRK and FRK in the development and progression of breast cancer.

The BRK enzyme is found to be elevated in 85 per cent of breast cancer tumours and has been found to cause potential drug resistance. The FRK enzyme often goes undetected in triple negative breast cancers – a type of breast cancer where the tumour is missing three important receptors commonly found in other breast cancers.

“I will discuss recent data highlighting the contrasting roles of BRK and FRK in breast cancer and show how these proteins can be targeted to improve breast cancer outcomes and especially in the most vulnerable populations like Black women where there is a disproportionate burden of triple negative breast cancer,” said Lukong.

Another exciting offering of the conference is the Leadership Summit sessions scheduled for Feb. 2 [2022]. The Leadership Summits will be comprised of six concurrent, 90-minute panels, engaging employers, academia, industries, government ministries, health-care professional and funding bodies.

USask College of Medicine assistant professor Dr. Erick McNair (PhD) is one of the facilitators of the Leadership Summit panel discussions.

The CBSN and BE-STEMM were first mentioned here in a November 17, 2021 posting which also noted a Canadian Broadcasting Corporation radio programme, “Quirks & Quarks: Black in science special”which won an award from the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).

Ebony magazine and Olay highlight ‘Beauty and Brains’

Ebony magazine is going to publish its first paper issue since 2019 for Black History Month February 2022.

Ebony magazine and Olay (currently a skin care brand of US company Proctor & Gamble) sponsored a beauty pageant/contest for the magazine’s cover. From the September 18, 2021 contest page on the Ebony website, Note: HBCU stands for Historically Black Colleges and Universities,

Introducing EBONY’s HBCU STEM Queens Competition

We are pleased to announce EBONY’s HBCU STEM [science, technology, engineering, mathematics] Queens competition. Since 1975, EBONY has celebrated Black collegiate women – poised to make a positive change in the African American community – through the Campus Queens competition at HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities). EBONY is proud to continue its longest-running editorial franchise. And this year, we’re excited to be partnering with Olay.

Ten beautiful, talented and accomplished HBCU STEM Queens will be featured in EBONY’s Commemorative print issue debuting on newsstands in February 2022.

ELIGIBILITY

Only female students who are STEM majors attending an HBCU are eligible for consideration.

COMPETITION AWARDS

The 10 selected EBONY HBCU STEM Queens with the highest number of votes will win an all-expenses-paid trip to Los Angeles to receive a makeover with professional hair and wardrobe consultation. This trip includes the official “HBCU STEM Queens” photo shoot, which will be featured in the February 2022 Commemorative issue of EBONY magazine as well as online. Students will be notified of the winning group of 10 Queens on October 8, 2021, with subsequent correspondence outlining the schedule and arrangements for the photo shoot.

Meseret Ambachew’s February 1, 2022 article for AdWeek provides more details about the partnership and the upcoming issue of the magazine.

Sarah Mahoney’s January 31, 2022 article for MarketingDaily includes this tidbit,

The special issue celebrates 10 “STEM Queens” from HBCUs, selected by voters on Ebony’s website. Each of the ten winners gets a $10,000 grant, mentorship options from women scientists at P&G, and a trip to Los Angeles for the awards.

Welcome to Black History Month 2022!

Creating time crystals with a quantum computer

This November 30, 2021 news item on phys.org about time crystals caught my attention,

There is a huge global effort to engineer a computer capable of harnessing the power of quantum physics to carry out computations of unprecedented complexity. While formidable technological obstacles still stand in the way of creating such a quantum computer, today’s early prototypes are still capable of remarkable feats.

For example, the creation of a new phase of matter called a “time crystal.” Just as a crystal’s structure repeats in space, a time crystal repeats in time and, importantly, does so infinitely and without any further input of energy—like a clock that runs forever without any batteries. The quest to realize this phase of matter has been a longstanding challenge in theory and experiment—one that has now finally come to fruition.

In research published Nov. 30 [2021] in Nature, a team of scientists from Stanford University, Google Quantum AI, the Max Planck Institute for Physics of Complex Systems and Oxford University detail their creation of a time crystal using Google’s Sycamore quantum computing hardware.

The Google Sycamore chip used in the creation of a time crystal. Credit: Google Quantum AI [downloaded from https://phys.org/news/2021-11-physicists-crystals-quantum.html]

A November 30, 2021 Stanford University news release (also on EurekAlert) by Taylor Kubota, which originated the news item, delves further into the work and into the nature of time crystals,

“The big picture is that we are taking the devices that are meant to be the quantum computers of the future and thinking of them as complex quantum systems in their own right,” said Matteo Ippoliti, a postdoctoral scholar at Stanford and co-lead author of the work. “Instead of computation, we’re putting the computer to work as a new experimental platform to realize and detect new phases of matter.”

For the team, the excitement of their achievement lies not only in creating a new phase of matter but in opening up opportunities to explore new regimes in their field of condensed matter physics, which studies the novel phenomena and properties brought about by the collective interactions of many objects in a system. (Such interactions can be far richer than the properties of the individual objects.)

“Time-crystals are a striking example of a new type of non-equilibrium quantum phase of matter,” said Vedika Khemani, assistant professor of physics at Stanford and a senior author of the paper. “While much of our understanding of condensed matter physics is based on equilibrium systems, these new quantum devices are providing us a fascinating window into new non-equilibrium regimes in many-body physics.”

What a time crystal is and isn’t

The basic ingredients to make this time crystal are as follows: The physics equivalent of a fruit fly and something to give it a kick. The fruit fly of physics is the Ising model, a longstanding tool for understanding various physical phenomena – including phase transitions and magnetism – which consists of a lattice where each site is occupied by a particle that can be in two states, represented as a spin up or down.

During her graduate school years, Khemani, her doctoral advisor Shivaji Sondhi, then at Princeton University, and Achilleas Lazarides and Roderich Moessner at the Max Planck Institute for Physics of Complex Systems stumbled upon this recipe for making time crystals unintentionally. They were studying non-equilibrium many-body localized systems – systems where the particles get “stuck” in the state in which they started and can never relax to an equilibrium state. They were interested in exploring phases that might develop in such systems when they are periodically “kicked” by a laser. Not only did they manage to find stable non-equilibrium phases, they found one where the spins of the particles flipped between patterns that repeat in time forever, at a period twice that of the driving period of the laser, thus making a time crystal.

The periodic kick of the laser establishes a specific rhythm to the dynamics. Normally the “dance” of the spins should sync up with this rhythm, but in a time crystal it doesn’t. Instead, the spins flip between two states, completing a cycle only after being kicked by the laser twice. This means that the system’s “time translation symmetry” is broken. Symmetries play a fundamental role in physics, and they are often broken – explaining the origins of regular crystals, magnets and many other phenomena; however, time translation symmetry stands out because unlike other symmetries, it can’t be broken in equilibrium. The periodic kick is a loophole that makes time crystals possible.

The doubling of the oscillation period is unusual, but not unprecedented. And long-lived oscillations are also very common in the quantum dynamics of few-particle systems. What makes a time crystal unique is that it’s a system of millions of things that are showing this kind of concerted behavior without any energy coming in or leaking out.

“It’s a completely robust phase of matter, where you’re not fine-tuning parameters or states but your system is still quantum,” said Sondhi, professor of physics at Oxford and co-author of the paper. “There’s no feed of energy, there’s no drain of energy, and it keeps going forever and it involves many strongly interacting particles.”

While this may sound suspiciously close to a “perpetual motion machine,” a closer look reveals that time crystals don’t break any laws of physics. Entropy – a measure of disorder in the system – remains stationary over time, marginally satisfying the second law of thermodynamics by not decreasing.

Between the development of this plan for a time crystal and the quantum computer experiment that brought it to reality, many experiments by many different teams of researchers achieved various almost-time-crystal milestones. However, providing all the ingredients in the recipe for “many-body localization” (the phenomenon that enables an infinitely stable time crystal) had remained an outstanding challenge.

For Khemani and her collaborators, the final step to time crystal success was working with a team at Google Quantum AI. Together, this group used Google’s Sycamore quantum computing hardware to program 20 “spins” using the quantum version of a classical computer’s bits of information, known as qubits.

Revealing just how intense the interest in time crystals currently is, another time crystal was published in Science this month [November 2021]. That crystal was created using qubits within a diamond by researchers at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands.

Quantum opportunities

The researchers were able to confirm their claim of a true time crystal thanks to special capabilities of the quantum computer. Although the finite size and coherence time of the (imperfect) quantum device meant that their experiment was limited in size and duration – so that the time crystal oscillations could only be observed for a few hundred cycles rather than indefinitely – the researchers devised various protocols for assessing the stability of their creation. These included running the simulation forward and backward in time and scaling its size.

“We managed to use the versatility of the quantum computer to help us analyze its own limitations,” said Moessner, co-author of the paper and director at the Max Planck Institute for Physics of Complex Systems. “It essentially told us how to correct for its own errors, so that the fingerprint of ideal time-crystalline behavior could be ascertained from finite time observations.”

A key signature of an ideal time crystal is that it shows indefinite oscillations from all states. Verifying this robustness to choice of states was a key experimental challenge, and the researchers devised a protocol to probe over a million states of their time crystal in just a single run of the machine, requiring mere milliseconds of runtime. This is like viewing a physical crystal from many angles to verify its repetitive structure.

“A unique feature of our quantum processor is its ability to create highly complex quantum states,” said Xiao Mi, a researcher at Google and co-lead author of the paper. “These states allow the phase structures of matter to be effectively verified without needing to investigate the entire computational space – an otherwise intractable task.”

Creating a new phase of matter is unquestionably exciting on a fundamental level. In addition, the fact that these researchers were able to do so points to the increasing usefulness of quantum computers for applications other than computing. “I am optimistic that with more and better qubits, our approach can become a main method in studying non-equilibrium dynamics,” said Pedram Roushan, researcher at Google and senior author of the paper.

“We think that the most exciting use for quantum computers right now is as platforms for fundamental quantum physics,” said Ippoliti. “With the unique capabilities of these systems, there’s hope that you might discover some new phenomenon that you hadn’t predicted.”

A view of the Google dilution refrigerator, which houses the Sycamore chip. Credit: Google Quantum AI [downloaded from https://scitechdaily.com/stanford-and-google-team-up-to-create-time-crystals-with-quantum-computers/]

Here’s a link to and a citation for the paper,

Time-Crystalline Eigenstate Order on a Quantum Processor by Xiao Mi, Matteo Ippoliti, Chris Quintana, Ami Greene, Zijun Chen, Jonathan Gross, Frank Arute, Kunal Arya, Juan Atalaya, Ryan Babbush, Joseph C. Bardin, Joao Basso, Andreas Bengtsson, Alexander Bilmes, Alexandre Bourassa, Leon Brill, Michael Broughton, Bob B. Buckley, David A. Buell, Brian Burkett, Nicholas Bushnell, Benjamin Chiaro, Roberto Collins, William Courtney, Dripto Debroy, Sean Demura, Alan R. Derk, Andrew Dunsworth, Daniel Eppens, Catherine Erickson, Edward Farhi, Austin G. Fowler, Brooks Foxen, Craig Gidney, Marissa Giustina, Matthew P. Harrigan, Sean D. Harrington, Jeremy Hilton, Alan Ho, Sabrina Hong, Trent Huang, Ashley Huff, William J. Huggins, L. B. Ioffe, Sergei V. Isakov, Justin Iveland, Evan Jeffrey, Zhang Jiang, Cody Jones, Dvir Kafri, Tanuj Khattar, Seon Kim, Alexei Kitaev, Paul V. Klimov, Alexander N. Korotkov, Fedor Kostritsa, David Landhuis, Pavel Laptev, Joonho Lee, Kenny Lee, Aditya Locharla, Erik Lucero, Orion Martin, Jarrod R. McClean, Trevor McCourt, Matt McEwen, Kevin C. Miao, Masoud Mohseni, Shirin Montazeri, Wojciech Mruczkiewicz, Ofer Naaman, Matthew Neeley, Charles Neill, Michael Newman, Murphy Yuezhen Niu, Thomas E. O’Brien, Alex Opremcak, Eric Ostby, Balint Pato, Andre Petukhov, Nicholas C. Rubin, Daniel Sank, Kevin J. Satzinger, Vladimir Shvarts, Yuan Su, Doug Strain, Marco Szalay, Matthew D. Trevithick, Benjamin Villalonga, Theodore White, Z. Jamie Yao, Ping Yeh, Juhwan Yoo, Adam Zalcman, Hartmut Neven, Sergio Boixo, Vadim Smelyanskiy, Anthony Megrant, Julian Kelly, Yu Chen, S. L. Sondhi, Roderich Moessner, Kostyantyn Kechedzhi, Vedika Khemani & Pedram Roushan. Nature (2021) DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-04257-w Published 30 November 2021

This is a preview of the unedited paper being provided by Nature. Click on the Download PDF button (to the right of the title) to get access.

Thousands of terragrams of mineral nanoparticles

A June 8, 2021 news item on phys.org announces some intriguing research (Note: Links have been removed),

Globally, the Earth system has thousands of terragrams (Tg) (1 Tg = 1012g) of mineral nanoparticles moving around the planet each year. These mineral nanoparticles are ubiquitously distributed throughout the atmosphere, oceans, waters, soils, in and/or on most living organisms, and even within proteins such as ferritin. In natural environments, mineral nanozymes can be produced by two pathways: ‘top down’ and ‘bottom up’ processes. Specifically, the weathering or human-promoted breakdown of bulk materials can result in nanomaterials directly (a top-down process), or nanomaterials can grow from precursors through crystallization, reaction, or biological roles (a bottom-up process).

These mineral nanoparticles can possess multiple enzyme-like properties, e.g., oxidase, peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase, depending on the local environment. Iron-containing minerals, e.g., ferrihydrite, hematite, and magnetite, are ubiquitous in Earth systems and possess peroxidase-like activity. Among these iron (oxyhydr)oxides, ferrihydrite exhibited the highest peroxidase-like activity, owing to its smallest particle size and largest specific surface area. Because of the presence of ferrous iron, magnetite has considerably high peroxidase-like activity.

A June 8, 2021 Science China Press press release on EurekAlert, which originated the news item, delves further into the research,

Compared with natural enzymes, mineral nanozymes show several advantages, such as low cost, increased stability, sustainable catalytic activity, and robustness to harsh environments. Because of their larger specific surface area, high ratios of surface atoms, wide band gap, and strong catalytic activities, mineral nanozymes play essential roles in biogeochemical cycles of elements in ecosystems.

Fungi and bacteria contribute approximately 70 Gt carbon (C) (1 Gt = 10 9 t) and 120 Gt C to global biomass, respectively. Given that fungal hyphae can cumulatively extend hundreds of kilometers in soils kg-1 in environments such as the rhizosphere (i.e., 200-800 km kg-1) and that more than 94% of land plants and fungi form a symbiotic relationship, mineral nanozymes may have important implications in microbial-mineral coevolution, nutrient cycling in the surface Earth system, mineral carbon sequestration, and alleviation of global climate changes.

In Earth systems, taxonomically and functionally diverse microorganisms are a vast source of superoxide (O2* -) or hydrogen peroxides (H2O2). These mineral nanozymes can regulate the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including H2O2, O2* – and hydroxyl radicals (HO* ). By producing a strong oxidative HO* , the interaction between mineral nanozymes and microorganisms may play an important role in driving the biogeochemical cycle of elements (Figure 2).

“All of the investigations on mineral nanozymes are still in the laboratory stage and are not field studies,” said Guang-Hui Yu, a scientist at the School of Earth System Science, Tianjin University, in the Chinese city of Tianjin.

“The catalytic activity of mineral nanozymes is mainly determined by the oxygen vacancies (OVs) on the mineral surface”, the researchers wrote in an article titled “Fungal Nanophase Particles Catalyze Iron Transformation for Oxidative Stress Removal and Iron Acquisition.”

“These oxygen vacancies are often occupied by hydroxyl groups on the mineral surface,” they explained.

Since mineral nanozymes can catalyze H2O2 to produce highly oxidizing HO* , they have been extensively used in the field of environmental remediation. Compared with natural enzymes, mineral nanozymes can degrade organic pollutants in a wider pH range. For example, by degrading H2O2, Fe3O4 nanoparticles could effectively remove rhodamine B (RhB) in the pH range from 3.0 to 9.0.

“The effects of mineral nanozymes on microbial communities in the environment remain unclear,” wrote the two researchers, “the findings of mineral nanozymes may have revealed a previously unknown feedback route of microbe-mineral coevolution that could shed light on a number of long-standing questions, such as the origin and evolution of life by modulating ROS levels.”

These two scholars likewise revealed in the study, which was published in the Science China Earth Sciences, that the discovery of nanomaterials as new enzyme mimetics has changed the traditional idea that nanomaterials are chemically inert in Earth systems. Given the terragram (Tg)-level abundance of mineral nanoparticles in Earth systems, it is statistically highly probable for some of them, particularly those of biotic origin, to behave as mineral nanozymes to catalyze superoxide and H2O2 and promote the biogeochemical cycles of oxygen and other elements.

Here’s a link to and a citation for the paper,

Nanozyme-mediated elemental biogeochemical cycling and environment by Zhi-Lai Chi & Guang-Hui Yu. Science China Earth Sciences (2021) DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-020-9756-5 Published: 03 June 2021

This paper is behind a paywall.

Here’s a link to and a citation for the earlier paper mentioned in the press release,

Fungal Nanophase Particles Catalyze Iron Transformation for Oxidative Stress Removal and Iron Acquisition by Guang-Hui Yu, Zhi-La iChi, Andreas Kapp, Fu-Sheng Sun, Cong-Qiang Liu, Hui Henry Teng, Geoffrey Michael Gadd. Current Biology Volume 30, Issue 15, 3 August 2020, Pages 2943-2950.e4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.05.058 Available online 11 June 2020

This paper is behind a paywall.

Entanglement-based quantum network courtesy of Dutch researchers

Belated congratulations to the researchers at the Delft University of Technology! Very exciting news as an April 15, 2021 news item on ScienceDaily makes clear,

A team of researchers from QuTech in the Netherlands reports realization of the first multi-node quantum network, connecting three quantum processors. In addition, they achieved a proof-of-principle demonstration of key quantum network protocols. Their findings mark an important milestone towards the future quantum internet and have now been published in Science.

An April 15, 2021 Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) press release (also on EurekAlert), which originated the news item, describes the breakthrough in more detail, Note: QuTech is the research center for Quantum Computing and Quantum Internet, a collaboration between TU Delft and TNO is Nederlandse Organisatie voor Toegepast Natuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek (English: Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research), an independent research organization),

The quantum internet

The power of the Internet is that it allows any two computers on Earth to be connected with each other, enabling applications undreamt of at the time of its creation decades ago. Today, researchers in many labs around the world are working towards first versions of a quantum internet – a network that can connect any two quantum devices, such as quantum computers or sensors, over large distances. Whereas today’s Internet distributes information in bits (that can be either 0 or 1), a future quantum internet will make use of quantum bits that can be 0 and 1 at the same time. ‘A quantum internet will open up a range of novel applications, from unhackable communication and cloud computing with complete user privacy to high-precision time-keeping,’ says Matteo Pompili, PhD student and a member of the research team. ‘And like with the Internet 40 years ago, there are probably many applications we cannot foresee right now.’

Towards ubiquitous connectivity

The first steps towards a quantum internet were taken in the past decade by linking two quantum devices that shared a direct physical link. However, being able to pass on quantum information through intermediate nodes (analogous to routers in the classical internet) is essential for creating a scalable quantum network. In addition, many promising quantum internet applications rely on entangled quantum bits, to be distributed between multiple nodes. Entanglement is a phenomenon observed at the quantum scale, fundamentally connecting particles at small and even at large distances. It provides quantum computers their enormous computational power and it is the fundamental resource for sharing quantum information over the future quantum internet. By realizing their quantum network in the lab, a team of researchers at QuTech – a collaboration between Delft University of Technology and TNO – is the first to have connected two quantum processors through an intermediate node and to have established shared entanglement between multiple stand-alone quantum processors.

Operating the quantum network

The rudimentary quantum network consists of three quantum nodes, at some distance within the same building. To make these nodes operate as a true network, the researchers had to invent a novel architecture that enables scaling beyond a single link. The middle node (called Bob) has a physical connection to both outer nodes (called Alice and Charlie), allowing entanglement links with each of these nodes to be established. Bob is equipped with an additional quantum bit that can be used as memory, allowing a previously generated quantum link to be stored while a new link is being established. After establishing the quantum links Alice-Bob and Bob-Charlie, a set of quantum operations at Bob converts these links into a quantum link Alice-Charlie. Alternatively, by performing a different set of quantum operations at Bob, entanglement between all three nodes is established.

Ready for subsequent use

An important feature of the network is that it announces the successful completion of these (intrinsically probabilistic) protocols with a “flag” signal. Such heralding is crucial for scalability, as in a future quantum internet many of such protocols will need to be concatenated. ‘Once established, we were able to preserve the resulting entangled states, protecting them from noise,’ says Sophie Hermans, another member of the team. ‘It means that, in principle, we can use these states for quantum key distribution, a quantum computation or any other subsequent quantum protocol.’

Quantum Internet Demonstrator

This first entanglement-based quantum network provides the researchers with a unique testbed for developing and testing quantum internet hardware, software and protocols. ‘The future quantum internet will consist of countless quantum devices and intermediate nodes,’ says Ronald Hanson, who led the research team. ‘Colleagues at QuTech are already looking into future compatibility with existing data infrastructures.’ In due time, the current proof-of-principle approach will be tested outside the lab on existing telecom fibre – on QuTech’s Quantum Internet Demonstrator, of which the first metropolitan link is scheduled to be completed in 2022.

Higher-level layers

In the lab, the researchers will focus on adding more quantum bits to their three-node network and on adding higher level software and hardware layers. Pompili: ‘Once all the high-level control and interface layers for running the network have been developed, anybody will be able to write and run a network application without needing to understand how lasers and cryostats work. That is the end goal.’

This news has likely lit some competitive fires in the research community. I think this is the first time I’ve featured news about the quantum internet since 2016 when, as it turns out, it was research from the University of Calgary that piqued my interest. See Teleporting photons in Calgary (Canada) is a step towards a quantum internet (a September 21, 2016 posting).

Here’s a link to and a citation for this latest work

Realization of a multinode quantum network of remote solid-state qubits by M. Pompili, S. L. N. Hermans, S. Baier, H. K. C. Beukers, P. C. Humphreys, R. N. Schouten, R. F. L. Vermeulen, M. J. Tiggelman, L. dos Santos Martins, B. Dirkse, S. Wehner, R. Hanson. Science 16 Apr 2021: Vol. 372, Issue 6539, pp. 259-264 DOI: 10.1126/science.abg1919

This paper is behind a paywall.

There is a video which introduces the concept of a quantum internet,

Beginner’s guide to folding DNA origami

I think this Aug. 6, 2010 post, Folding, origami, and shapeshifting and an article with over 50,000 authors is the first time I wrote about DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and origami (the Japanese art of paper folding).

Since then, the technique has become even more popular with the result that the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has produced a beginner’s guide, according to a Jan. 8, 2021 news item on Nanowerk,

In a technique known as DNA origami, researchers fold long strands of DNA over and over again to construct a variety of tiny 3D structures, including miniature biosensors and drug-delivery containers. Pioneered at the California Institute of Technology in 2006, DNA origami has attracted hundreds of new researchers over the past decade, eager to build receptacles and sensors that could detect and treat disease in the human body, assess the environmental impact of pollutants, and assist in a host of other biological applications.

Although the principles of DNA origami are straightforward, the technique’s tools and methods for designing new structures are not always easy to grasp and have not been well documented. In addition, scientists new to the method have had no single reference they could turn to for the most efficient way of building DNA structures and how to avoid pitfalls that could waste months or even years of research.

That’s why Jacob Majikes and Alex Liddle, researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) who have studied DNA origami for years, have compiled the first detailed tutorial on the technique. Their comprehensive report provides a step-by-step guide to designing DNA origami nanostructures, using state-of-the-art tools.

Here’s an image illustrating some of the techniques for DNA origami,

Caption: Collage shows some of the techniques and designs employed in DNA origami. Credit: K. Dill/NIST

A Jan. 8, 2021 US NIST news release (also on EurekAlert), which originated the news item, provide more detail as to the authors’ motivations, objectives, and future plans for their beginner’s guide,

“We wanted to take all the tools that people have developed and put them all in one place, and to explain things that you can’t say in a traditional journal article,” said Majikes. “Review papers might tell you everything that everyone’s done, but they don’t tell you how the people did it. “

DNA origami relies on the ability of complementary base pairs of the DNA molecule to bind to each other. Among DNA’s four bases — adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T) — A binds with T and G with C. This means that a specific sequence of As, Ts, Cs and Gs will find and bind to its complement.

The binding enables short strands of DNA to act as “staples,” keeping sections of long strands folded or joining separate strands. A typical origami design may require 250 staples. In this way, the DNA can self-assemble into a variety of shapes, forming a nanoscale framework to which an assortment of nanoparticles — many useful in medical treatment, biological research and environmental monitoring — can attach.

The challenges in using DNA origami are twofold, said Majikes. First, researchers are fabricating 3D structures using a foreign language — the base pairs A, G, T and C. In addition, they’re using those base-pair staples to twist and untwist the familiar double helix of DNA molecules so that the strands bend into specific shapes. That can be difficult to design and visualize. Majikes and Liddle urge researchers to strengthen their design intuition by building 3D mock-ups, such as sculptures made with bar magnets, before they start fabrication. These models, which can reveal which aspects of the folding process are critical and which ones are less important, should then be “flattened” into 2D to be compatible with computer-aided design tools for DNA origami, which typically use two-dimensional representations.

DNA folding can be accomplished in a variety of ways, some less efficient than others, noted Majikes. Some strategies, in fact, may be doomed to failure.

“Pointing out things like ‘You could do this, but it’s not a good idea’ — that type of perspective isn’t in a traditional journal article, but because NIST is focused on driving the state of technology in the nation, we’re able to publish this work in the NIST journal,” Majikes said. “I don’t think there’s anywhere else that would have given us the leeway and the time and the person hours to put all this together.”

Liddle and Majikes plan to follow up their work with several additional manuscripts detailing how to successfully fabricate nanoscale devices with DNA.

Here’s a link to and a citation for the beginner’s guide,

DNA Origami Design: A How-To Tutorial by Majikes, Jacob M. and Liddle, J. Alexander. Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Volume 126, Article No. 126001 (2021) Published online Jan. 8, 2021. DOI: 10.6028/jres.126.001

This is open access and it include such gems as this,

1.2 Education or Skill Level

Readers of this tutorial should be familiar with the physical properties of B-DNA, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), and crossover junctions. In addition, once ready to create a structure for a specific application, the designer should determine the full list of functional requirements. This list includes answers to the following questions: What should the structure do? What specific properties are critical to the system’s performance?

1.3 Prerequisites

The designer should have either sufficient paper for manual design (not recommended) or a design program such as cadnano [1] (all versions sufficient), nanoengineer®, ParaboninSēquio®, or equivalent.1 A registered account with three-dimensional (3D) structure prediction servers such as CanDo [2, 3] is also recommended.

1.4Tools or Equipment

Equipment includes desktop or laptop computer equipment, craft supplies for macroscale models, and DNA nanotechnology computer-aided design (CAD) software.

Feel free to go forth and fold!